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When we think of Italy and oil, olives are the first to spring to mind. This was probably the reason why the production of walnut oil began in the first place, as a substitute for olive oil, which once was considered expensive and hard to come by. The Arnad walnut oil is made from selected walnuts with a low acidity level, which are then dried and cold-pressed.

The harvesting, threshing and processing of the walnuts are still conducted manually and old wooden presses are used. This oil is particularly rich in vitamin E, which helps to combat cellular ageing, and contains a high concentration of alpha-linolenic acid; an omega-3 fatty acid, which improves the health of blood vessels, thereby decreasing the risk of heart disease. With the increase in health awareness, walnut oil has become an attractive alternative to other oils with a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids.

Moreover, it contains no cholesterol! Just 1 0 kM into the Valle d' Aosta stands the town of Arnad. In the Valle d'Aosta, lard has always been considered an important nutritional ingredient, and records show that the production of lard can be traced back to the year In time, the processing techniques have undergone some changes and have now reached a level of near-perfection, where the quality of this eclectic product is constantly scrutinized, so it can continue to delight the palates of those who taste it.

It goes very well with preparations made with polenta or game and finally, because of that special sweet flavour, it can be used even in desserts! In order to obtain this exquisite product, severe guidelines have to be set. First, and foremost, the pigs cannot weigh less than kg, they must be over 9 months of age and they must only come from the Valle d'Aosta, Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto or Emilia Romagna regions.

Secondly, their diet must be entirely natural and fresh and can by no means be made up from animal feed with additional vitamins or minerals. The layers of lard are then covered with water and crystallized salt. The lard is then left to season for at least 3 months, even if this period of rest can last up to months. During the last days of August, with music, entertainment and good food, the town of Arnad pays homage to this precious lard that has represented for centuries a fundamental ingredient in of Valle d'Aosta cuisine.

In these four days of festivities, you can taste local products, your kids can participate in workshops, and there will be plenty of opportunity to end the evening with a dance!

No visit to the Valle d'Aosta is complete without tasting the typical dairy products that most mountain areas have to offer.

The Gressoney Valley boasts some notable cheeses, the most known of all being the Gressoney Toma, a savoury locally produced table cheese, also called Kesch in local Walser dialect.

Produced directly on the mountain pastures of the Lys valley and also in the centre of the valley using traditional method, the tome are left to mature on wooden planks in cellars or caves for a period ranging from two to four months - ideally, the cheeses could be left to mature for 18 months but producers currently prefer to sell a less mature, smoother tasting version.

A characteristic trait of Gressoney Toma is that it is a half-fat cheese, prepared using semi-skimmed cow's milk. The skimming is achieved via surfacing, i. The remaining milk is used to prepare this delicious cheese with a compact paste and savoury flavour. Another typical cheese of the valley is Salignön, a mature ricotta cheese with a creamy fat texture and a spicy hot flavour , obtained from the left over whey from cheese-making.

To make Salignön, a cheese produced in various areas of the valley, the whey is enriched with milk or cream, mixed with salt, pepper and chilli pepper and is further seasoned with mountain herbs.

In the past the short maturation process took place near the fireplace and the final product acquired a slightly smoked flavour. Salignön is a true delicacy but it is not easy to find: Other cheeses, not only typical of this area, can be found in the Gressoney Valley: What better way to end a day of sports or sightseeing in the mountains?

What are the odds of winning a world title in any sports discipline? And what are the odds of competing with your own brother for the same gold medal? The two brothers from Ayas have competed for the world title for just about 11 years, without leaving hope for other rivals, other than the third step on the podium.

The lives of Ivan and Simone are full of world records and victories. Simone is the older brother, born on November 8, and 8 times a world champion, with 3 world records to his name. Two hundred and fifty-two kilometres an hour… a whole lot more than what your average automobile can achieve. Ivan, the younger brother, was born on March 31, , and he is certainly no less of a champion!

Since , on two occasions has he managed to steal the prized first cup from his brother, which he won in and in , while he came in second to Simone on 5 other occasions. But the following year, they came back with a vengeance!

Two great champions, two brothers jumping down snow-clad slopes with a common objective: A family affair, you could say. A show-down going kilometres an hour on a pair of skis. The Monte Rosa massif is, indeed The massif counts ten peaks, nine of which higher than 4, metres in Italian territory, four on the frontier and five on the Italian slope. The 10 th , the Dufourspitze 4, metres , is the highest peak of the mass and counts the highest in Switzerland and second highest in the Alps, exceeded only by the Monte Bianco.

It is from the Italian side that the Monte Rosa takes on the appearance of a single, united massif. The reason for this is mainly that the area was inhabited by the Walser — a German speaking community — who initially were responsible for the German names. As for the etymology of the name Monte Rosa, it actually has very little to do with the colour pink, as some can be brought to, logically, think. The mountain does take on a slightly pinkish shade at sunset or sunrise, as most mountains do, but the name actually derives from an Aostian patois word — roëse — meaning glacier.

The first to succeed in climbing the Monte Rosa were 7 mountaineers from Gressoney: They reached a minor summit between Lyskamm and Ludwigshöhe, the Entdeckungsfels or Roccia della Scoperta. The year was The same year, Nicolas Vincent and Joseph Zumstein reached an impressive 4, metres, and that sub peak is now known as the Zumsteinspitze. In , mountain guides from Gressoney accompanied her Majesty Queen Margherita of Savoy to the inauguration of the highest mountain refuge in Europe — the Regina Margherita Hut.

Queen Margherita thus became the first woman to ascend the Monte Rosa — quite the accomplishment! Besides being a popular site for mountaineering, hiking and snowboarding, Monte Rosa hosts numerous ski resorts in the valleys of Gressoney, Champoluc and Alagna Valsesia Piedmont , with fabulous slopes and heli-skiing, and where you can practically ski until May.

Each year in the town of Verrès 38 km from Aosta, 72 from Turin and from Milan , a historical re-enactment takes place to commemorate an unusual event, which occurred on the 31 st of May, Ok, this deserves some explanation!

From this moment on, Lady Challant is the indisputable protagonist of the entire festival. In the following days, Lady Caterina keeps to a tight schedule, touring and parading through town, while the townspeople enjoy a full festive program with masque balls, dances, music and parade floats. Margherita of Savoy , the first and the most beloved Queen of Italy, was profoundly attached to the town of Gressoney.

In fact, she contributed a great deal to the growing fascination of tourists for this small community at the foot of Monte Rosa. From the late s to the beginning of the , Gressoney became one of the most sought after holiday resorts among the nobility of the time. She was, in fact, a most beloved Queen, a woman of great charm, who knew how to bring the cultural and artistic elite of the time closer to the monarchy. There, Carducci found many an inspiration for his poetry, while Margherita found peace and quiet during her summer retreats.

She was, in fact, an enthusiastic climber; an interest she shared with her dear friend, Baron Luigi Beck Peccoz. The Baron hosted the Queen at his Gressoney residence for 5 years, from to This was a period of numerous alpine adventures for the Queen, who was the first woman to ever climb Mount Rosa. In her honour stands the mountain shelter Capanna Regina Margherita — still the highest in Europe. He suffered a heart attack on the Grenz glacier, trying to cross from Gressoney to Zermatt.

Since then the Queen never again set foot on Monte Rosa. The manor was completed in and really stands out in the midst of a conifer forest in the enchanting locality of Belvedere, where the view is spectacular, dominating the entire valley as far as the Lyskamm glacier.

Even though the Queen was determined not to climb anymore, she still wanted the grand panorama of the entrancing mountains to keep her company, which is probably why her apartments occupied the best position. The manor strikes one as taken out of a fairy tale: The interior is refined and elegant, as was its mistress. In fact, her name is portrayed everywhere and one feels the reminiscence of her past presence.

Here she stayed every summer until , a year prior to her death in Bordighera, on January 4 th , The interior of the castle hosts an impressive number of trophies: It stands in a splendid position at metres, surrounded by chestnut trees. According to legend this is the exact spot where a wooden statue of the Holy Mary was found. The shepherds who discovered it placed the sculpture in the chapel of a nearby village but the next day the statue miraculously reappeared in the original place where it had been found, as if it had chosen to stand there.

Another legend narrates that a cave close to the sanctuary was the hiding place where a witch and a devil with seven heads kept their prisoners. Thanks to her faith in the Holy Mary, one of the captives, a girl captured close to the church, managed to calm down the other prisoners by encouraging them to pray to Our Lady of Machaby.

To thank them for their prayers, the Madonna delle Nevi showed them a small opening, allowing them to escape. None of the above can be proven but we know for sure that the original building dates back to the fourteenth century and that the sanctuary was entirely rebuilt between and The rectangular simple structure of the church exterior is enriched by the more refined portico, added in The bell-tower dates back to while a separate building in the back has frescoes depicting the Mysteries of the Rosary.

The interior of the church is divided into three naves with round arches and stone columns. The ceilings have rib vaults and the walls are full of votive offerings brought by the people over the years.

Interesting 19th century frescoes by Alessandro, Arturo and Antonio Artari can be seen in the cupola. The altar, instead, dates back to the 17 th century and is built of black marble with a fine wood-carved tabernacle. Various other stone statues decorate the external square and the areas nearby. The sanctuary is a place of extreme peace and tranquillity, worthy to experience.

Visits are by appointment only by contacting the parish office, unless you visit on the 5 th August, the patron saint's day, when a pilgrimage takes place and the sanctuary is open. All of different size and colours, these lakes are sure to leave you breathless with their pristine mountain waters and beautiful hues. To guide nature-lovers through the Reserve is the ancient mule track marked with a black 2 on a round yellow sign leading from Fontainemore to Oropa. This track is also used for the famous religious procession that passes through the Colle della Balma di Oropa, and has been so for more than years!

The Nature Reserve has been around since and covers an area of hectares. Situated at an altitude of 1, -2, metres at the head of the Pacoulla stream valley, the park has a rich flora, boasting larch forests mixed with shrubbery such as rhododendron, blueberry and juniper.

Rare varieties of primrose also grow here, as well as mountain arnica, purple gentian, nigritella and - up on the steep, sunlit slopes — the mountain lily.

As for wildlife, the Reserve hosts numerous species typical of the Alpine habitat, such as the marmot, the mountain hare and the chamois. The Mont Mars Nature Reserve is ideal for hiking, mountain biking, horseback riding and — in winter — snowshoe trekking.

Egidio, Collegiate Church stands in the village of Verrès, along the right bank of a stream called Evançon. Common belief dates the foundation of the monastery to the year , by commission of Gisella Italian feminine of Giles , the wife of the Marquis of Ivrea.

However, the clergy house and its canons are first mentioned in a written document in Throughout its history periods of decadence alternated with periods of flourishment. According to documents dating back to , the monastery followed the Rule of St.

Augustine and was an important centre for the formation of the clergy. During the Lower Middle Ages, thanks to donations and privileges, the complex became the most important religious institution in the Valle d'Aosta. The main brick building and the adjacent bell-tower, with two interesting statues of St. Giles, were erected in The religious complex was re-established in but was then confiscated by the state in Elements of the 15 th century building can be observed in the marvellous carved stone, three-mullioned window on one of the walls.

The interior with its solemn central nave has columns and is richly decorated, while fragments of a 14 th century fresco can still be seen. The choir, with wooden stalls, has one of the first multi-coloured marble altars in the Valle d'Aosta which is itself well worth a visit. In addition to these marvels, a rich library and one of the most important archives in the Valle d'Aosta can also be found at the complex.

When touring the area in the s, famous English painter William Turner paid a visit to the village and made a drawing of the church and castle.

Apart from being the local religious centre, today the church has an active choir and hosts classical and religious music concerts and contests. Not far from the imposing Fort of Bard is the enchanting district of Donnas. Here, metres above sea level, hidden treasures are kept. A town of great strategic interest for the Romans, Donnas was a point of transit and commerce and served as a resting point on the much-travelled Gaul road. Today, the enchanting hamlet still showcases original 16 th century windows, frescoes, beautiful portals in walnut wood and the exquisite Palazzo Enrielli from the 17 th century.

If you have time, a stroll along the quiet streets of Donnas, dotted with small shops and traditional homes, is sure to take you back in time.

However, just outside the town, Roman history is definitely not forgotten. This spectacular stretch of via della Gallie is more than 2, years old and shows exactly how the Romans defied the laws of nature, carving the passage out of live rock.

Considering it a feat that would be impressive even if done today, we can only stand in awe at how the construction of this important road was accomplished over 2, years ago. The large stretch of cobbled road measures metres long and around 5 metres wide and is a true marvel for all passers-by. Now the symbol of the town, the road still displays its original carriage tracks and is characterised by a Roman arch, carved out of rock during the first century B.

The archway is all that remains to remind us of the incredible amount of rock that was removed; the result of hard-working teams, which demonstrates just how sophisticated the road techniques were at the time, so much so that they have only been surpassed recently, with our modern tunnels and viaducts. This extremely deep gorge has been carved out of the rocks over time by the River Lys, which here plummets into a spectacular waterfall.

In fact, the Guillemore ravine combines incredible views with years of both natural and human history. This specific spot was the only passageway of the Lys Valley for centuries, with the two mule tracks leading up the Lys Valley on its right and left slopes meeting right here, on the wonderful stone bridge overlooking the abysmal gorge.

Upstream from the gorge you can see, even from the road below, rocks polished by the glacier. Even a number of potholes are present; these are characteristic formations of erosion caused by the debris-laden subglacial torrent and its piercing movements.

A small, perfectly circular pothole can be seen on the right drainage divide and is easily recognisable, because it is often filled with water. Passing by the famous Moretta bridge, this road will take you directly to the mountain borgo and its church, situated on a flatter point of the path, just before it begins to steeply go uphill again.

Tradition wants this centuries-old church to date back to the year , even though the first written document mentioning the church of Perloz is a papal bull from The powerful Vallaise family, who dominated almost the entire valley, was profoundly attached to the church, making it their family burying grounds. While you take in the surrounding landscapes, you will notice two Vallaise castles, one is known as the Ohtal and the other is named Charles, after a Captain of the Vallaise family, who was knighted by the Dukes of Savoy for having partaken in the liberation of the Fort Bard from the French in On entering the hamlet of Perloz, other buildings stand out as reminders of extraordinary past events that took place in this now remote village, but once the administrative and religious centre of the noble family Vallaise.

A historic wine press still bears the signs of a horrendous fire started by the Fascists on June the 30 th during a retaliation against the partisan fighters. Perloz is burning like an enormous brazier, these are the words of Don Pramotton, the village priest, who tells us the story of how the fire devoured many buildings in the village, including the Vallaise castle, of which there is nothing left but the perimeter fence.

If you're less into walking and more into making use of modern-day comforts, know that Perloz is also accessible through a regular car-accessible road. So no excuses - indulge yourself, for an hour or so, with a walk into the past, and keep an eye out for hidden treasures. You will definitely find some!

Immersed in nature all around the Mount Rosa , the Walser villages resist to this day. As mountain farmers, the Walser are a minority who for centuries have represented the highest members of the Alpine population, geographically speaking, creating stable settlements at a minimum of 1,, metres above sea-level.

The Walser dialect - Titsch in Gressoney, Toitschu in Issime and Titzschu in Alagna and Rimella — is probably their most recognizable trait of this society and offers an excellent explanation of how isolated areas, each with their own culture, came about.

Economical and community issues are, inevitably, some of the main challenges these mountain folk had to face living in high altitudes. Naturally, even the architecture had to adapt to the severe surroundings; Walser houses served multiple purposes to prevent the inhabitants from having to go outside in the freezing cold all the time. Every Walser community has its own distinctive features; in the community of the Gressoney valley, for example, we find the Stadel-Haus; a building functioning as residence and as a stable for farm animals, a perfect union for those humid winters on the south side of the Mount Rosa.

The stadel stands on the banks of the River Lys, safe from avalanches and an ideal spot to settle small family villages.

Here and there, next to the stadel, other homes and rustic villas have been built by merchants who made their fortune during the 18 th and 19 th centuries.

It is fascinating to see how the Walser community still defend their age-old traditions and characteristics to this day, but then, this is how they have always coped, by adapting to their surroundings. The hikers come from far and wide to complete a gruelling centuries-old pilgrimage to visit a statue housed in Oropa, which is said to have been carved by Saint Luke himself. Pilgrims typically set off from the town of Fontainemore at 11 pm and reach the sanctuary some 11 hours later, following a challenging starlit trail, which sees them climb to over meters and cover a distance of some nine kilometers.

Once at Oropa, men women and children pilgrims all pay their respects to Saint Luke's mysterious, black wooden statue of the Madonna. The statue was found in Jerusalem in the 4th century AD and was carried to Italy shortly afterwards. It has been venerated ever since and is said to possess mysterious properties. Dust never gathers on the carving, and, despite of its age, it has not been worn away by touching of pilgrims nor eaten by wood-worms. But the procession of Oropa, which has been undertaken since , is not just about ancient devotion to God or the church.

The event sees members of the Lys Valley take time out from the day-to-day distractions of life and come together with their neighbours. With the stars as their guide, two nights a decade, they walk side by side, share stories, connect with nature and explore their spirituality. If your idea of a castle consists of thick walls , high and solid towers, drawbridges and constricted dungeons, well then… you might be disappointed when you first cast your eyes on the Issogne Castle.

But once you cross the entrance threshold and go beyond the portico, you will immediately be taken back into a past long gone, where the first that strikes you is the emblematic wrought-iron pomegranate fountain — a work of art with strong symbolism alluding to the Challant family; the original owners.

Set in the middle of the courtyard, it is truly an iconographic masterpiece. More wonders await visitors on the inside, such as the much cared for Italian Garden; vibrant with flowerbeds and garden paths.

The garden makes a perfect frame for the extraordinary Miroir des enfants de Challant Mirror of the children of the House of Challant , a lavish series of frescoed heraldic arms, highlighting the importance of the Challant nobility and their principal matrimonial alliances. The measure of effectiveness of a directional antenna as compared to an isotropic radiator, maximum value is called antenna gain by convention.

In solar-terrestrial terms, an averaged planetary A Index based on data from a set of specific stations. In hydrologic terms, a statistical method to estimate the amount of surface runoff which will occur from a basin from a given rainstorm based on the antecedent precipitation index, physical characteristics of the basin, time of year, storm duration, rainfall amount, and rainfall intensity.

An atmospheric condition that exists when the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic lapse rate. An atmospheric condition that exists when the environmental lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic lapse rate. The process in which incident radiant energy is retained by a substance by conversion to some other form of energy. The part of a valley or canyon wall against which a dam is constructed. Right and left abutments are those on respective sides of an observer looking downstream.

Reservoir water that moves through seams or pores in the natural abutment material and exits as seepag. A cloud which is dependent on a larger cloud system for development and continuance. Roll clouds, shelf clouds, and wall clouds are examples of accessory clouds. The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of a frozen particle with a supercooled liquid water droplet which freezes upon impact.

Degree of conformity of a measure to a standard or true value; in other words, how close a predicted or measured value is to the true value. Precipitation, such as rain, snow or sleet, containing relatively high concentrations of acid-forming chemicals that have been released into the atmosphere and combined with water vapor; harmful to the environment. Rain containing relatively high concentrations of acid-forming chemicals that have been released into the atmosphere and combined with water vapor; harmful to the environment.

The amount of water required to cover one acre to a depth of one foot. An acre-foot equals , gallons, or 43, cubic feet.

A line on a thermodynamic chart relating the pressure and temperature of a substance such as air that is undergoing a transformation in which no heat is exchanged with its environment.

Changes in temperature caused by the expansion cooling or compression warming of a body of air as it rises or descends in the atmosphere, with no exchange of heat with the surrounding air.

A process which occurs with no exchange of heat between a system and its environment. A fog that forms when warm air flows over a cold surface and cools from below until saturation is reached. An ice cover of floe formed by the freezing together of various forms of ice. A body of air covering a relatively wide area and exhibiting horizontally uniform properties.

Generally, a thunderstorm not associated with a front or other type of synoptic-scale forcing mechanism. Air mass thunderstorms typically are associated with warm, humid air in the summer months; they develop during the afternoon in response to insolation, and dissipate rather quickly after sunset. Since all thunderstorms are associated with some type of forcing mechanism, synoptic-scale or otherwise, the existence of true air-mass thunderstorms is debatable. The meteorological potential for air pollution problems, considered without regard to the presence or absence of actual pollution sources.

Mathematical or conceptual model used to estimate present or future air quality. A meteorological situation in which there is a major buildup of air pollution in the atmosphere. This usually occurs when the same air mass is parked over the same area for several days. During this time, the light winds cannot "cleanse" the buildup of smoke, dust, gases, and other industrial air pollution. This National Weather Service product is issued when major buildups of air pollution, smoke, dust, or industrial gases are expected near the ground for a period of time.

This usually results from a stagnant high pressure system with weak winds being unable to bring in fresh air. It is the northward flowing warm division of the Aleutian Current. Reflectivity; the fraction of radiation striking a surface that is reflected by that surface.

A fast moving low pressure system that moves southeast out of Canadian Province of Alberta southwest Canada through the Plains, Midwest, and Great Lakes region usually during the winter. This low pressure area is usually accompanied by light snow, strong winds, and colder temperatures. Another variation of the same system is called a "Saskatchewan Screamer". The stage which, when reached by a rising stream, represents the level where appropriate officials e. The term "alert stage" is to be used instead of warning stage.

Monitor stage or caution stage may be used instead of alert stage in some parts of the country. A semi-permanent, subpolar area of low pressure located in the Gulf of Alaska near the Aleutian Islands. It is a generating area for storms and migratory lows often reach maximum instensity in this area. It is most active during the late fall to late spring. During the summer, it is weaker, retreating towards the North Pole and becoming almost nonexistent.

During this time, the North Pacific High pressure system dominates. A computer program or set of programs which is designed to systematically solve a certain kind of problem.

Sediments deposited by erosional processes, usually by streams. A closed, thermally driven diurnal mountain wind circulation whose lower branch blows up or down the sloping sidewalls of a valley or mountain. The upper branch blows in the opposite direction, thereby closing the circulation. An instrument that indicates the altitude of an object above a fixed level. Pressure altimeters use an aneroid barometer with a scale graduated in altitude instead of pressure.

A correction of the station pressure to sea level used by aviation. This correction takes into account the standard variation of pressure with height and the influence of temperature variation with height on the pressure.

The temperatures used correspond to the standard atmosphere temperatures between the surface and sea level. A cloud of a class characterized by globular masses or rolls in layers or patches, the individual elements being larger and darker than those of cirrocumulus and smaller than those of stratocumulus.

These clouds are of medium altitude, about , ft m. A cloud of a class characterized by a generally uniform gray sheet or layer, lighter in color than nimbostratus and darker than cirrostratus. These clouds are of medium altitude, about to 20, ft m. The maximum magnitude of a quantity. Often used to refer to the maximum height of a wave. Class of measuring devices in which the output varies continuously as a function of the input non-digital. A historical instance of a given meteorological scenario or feature that is used for comparison with another scenario or feature.

For example, a long-range forecaster predicting conditions for the upcoming winter may make comparisons to analog seasons in which meteorological factors were similar to those of the upcoming season. In hydrologic terms, submerged frazil ice attached or anchored to the river bottom, irrespective of its formation.

An accumulation of anchor ice which acts as a dam and raises the water level. An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure in which a needle, attached to the top of an evacuated box, is deflected as changes in atmospheric pressure cause the top of the box to bend in or out. Radar echoes caused by birds, insects, and localized refractive index discontinuities.

The angle at which a reflected ray of energy leaves a reflecting surface. It is measured between the outgoing ray and a perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence i. In hydrologic terms, the maximum discharge peak during a given water year October 1 - September AnomalyThe deviation of a measurable unit e. API - an index of moisture stored within a drainage basin before a storm.

A luminous white spot that appears on the parhelic circle at the same altitude as the sun and degrees from it in azimuth. The upper or return branch of an along-valley wind system, as confined within a valley, and blowing in a direction opposite to the winds in the lower altitudes of the valley.

The formation or intensification of an anticyclone or high pressure center. A large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Rotation in the opposite sense as the Earths rotation, i. The opposite of cyclonic rotation. The flat, spreading top of a cumulonimbus cloud, often shaped like an anvil.

Thunderstorm anvils may spread hundreds of miles downwind from the thunderstorm itself, and sometimes may spread upwind. They typically appear during the weakening or dissipating stage of the parent thunderstorm, or during an active MCS.

Slang for a circular or semicircular lip of clouds along the underside of the upwind part of a back-sheared anvil, indicating rapid expansion of the anvil. Slang for frequent often continuous or nearly continuous , localized lightning discharges occurring from within a thunderstorm anvil. The point on the annual orbit of a body about the sun that is farthest from the sun; at present, the earth reaches this point million kilometer from the sun on about 5 July.

The farthest distance between the moon and earth or the earth and sun. A measure of human discomfort due to combined heat and humidity e. The speed and true direction from which the wind appears to blow with reference to a moving point. In hydrologic terms, a formation which contains water but cannot transmit it rapidly enough to furnish a significant supply to a well or spring.

In hydrologic terms, permeable layers of underground rock, or sand that hold or transmit groundwater below the water table that will yield water to a well in sufficient quantities to produce water for beneficial use.

In hydrologic terms, a geologic formation which has no interconnected openings and cannot hold or transmit water. A concrete arch dam is used in sites where the ratio of width between abutments to height is not great and where the foundation at the abutments is solid rock capable of resisting great forces.

The arch provides resistance to movement. When combined with the weight of concrete arch-gravity dam , both the weight and shape of the structure provide great resistance to the pressure of water. In solar-terrestrial terms, a bright, compact plage crossed by a system of small, arched filaments, which is often a sign of rapid or continued growth in an Active Region.

The region within the Arctic Circle, or, loosely, northern regions in general, characterized by very low temperatures. AO - The Arctic Oscillation is a pattern in which atmospheric pressure at polar and middle latitudes fluctuates between negative and positive phases.

The negative phase brings higher-than-normal pressure over the polar region and lower-than-normal pressure at about 45 degrees north latitude.

The negative phase allows cold air to plunge into the Midwestern United States and western Europe, and storms bring rain to the Mediterranean. The positive phase brings the opposite conditions, steering ocean storms farther north and bringing wetter weather to Alaska, Scotland and Scandinavia and drier conditions to areas such as California, Spain and the Middle East.

In recent years research has shown, the Arctic Oscillation has been mostly in its positive phase. Steam fog, but often specifically applied to steam fog rising from small open water within sea ice. The boundary or front separating deep, cold arctic air from shallower, relatively less cold polar air. A low, horizontal cloud formation associated with the leading edge of thunderstorm outflow i. Roll clouds and shelf clouds both are types of arcus clouds. This National Weather Service product is intended to provide a well-reasoned discussion of the meteorological thinking which went into the preparation of the Zone Forecast Product.

The forecaster will try to focus on the most particular challenges of the forecast. The text will be written in plain language or in proper contractions. At the end of the discussion, there will be a list of all advisories, non-convective watches, and non-convective warnings.

The term non-convective refers to weather that is not caused by thunderstorms. An intermediate Area Forecast Discussion will be issued when either significant forecast updates are being made or if interesting weather is expected to occur. An array of pollutant sources, so widely dispersed and uniform in strength that they can be treated in a dispersion model as an aggregate pollutant release from a defined area at a uniform rate.

Compare line source and point source. AWHPS - A computer system which automatically ingests areal flash flood guidance values and WSRD products and displays this data and other hydrologic information on a map background.

In hydrologic terms, the area covered by the drawdown curves of a given pumping well or combination of wells at a particular time. In hydrologic terms, a graph showing the relation between the surface area of the water in a reservoir, the corresponding volume, and elevation.

An adjunctive applied to regions where precipitation is so deficient in quantity, or occurs at such times, that agriculture is impracticable without irrigation. In hydrologic terms, a water-carved channel or gully in arid country, usually rather small with steep banks, dry most of the time, due to infrequent rainfall and the shallowness of the cut which does not penetrate below the level of permanent ground water. In hydrologic terms, a well drilled into a confined aquifer with enough hydraulic pressure for the water to flow to the surface without pumping.

Also called a flowing well. In hydrologic terms, a weir or other man-made structure which serves as the control for a stream-gaging station. An advisory issued for conditions associated with airborne ash plume resulting in ongoing deposition at the surface.

Ashfall may originate directly from a volcanic eruption, or indirectly by wind suspending the ash. The time at which the sun is 18 degrees below the horizon in the morning.

Astronomical dawn is that point in time at which the sun starts lightening the sky. Prior to this time during the morning, the sky is completely dark. This is the time at which the sun is 18 degrees below the horizon in the evening.

At this time the sun no longer illuminates the sky. AU - The mean earth-sun distance, equal to 1. Same as Boundary Layer - in general, a layer of air adjacent to a bounding surface. Specifically,the term most often refers to the planetary boundary layer, which is the layer within which the effects of friction are significant.

For the earth, this layer is considered to be roughly the lowest one or two kilometers of the atmosphere. It is within this layer that temperatures are most strongly affected by daytime insolation and nighttime radiational cooling, and winds are affected by friction with the earths surface.

The effects of friction die out gradually with height, so the "top" of this layer cannot be defined exactly. A mathematical model for quantitatively describing, simulating, and analyzing the structure of the circulation in the atmosphere and the underlying causes. The pressure exerted by the earths atmosphere at any given point, determined by taking the product of the gravitational acceleration at the point and the mass of the unit area column of air above the point.

Infrared radiation energy in the wavelength interval of 3- 80 micrometer emitted by or being propagated through the atmosphere.

It consists of both upwelling and downwelling components. Compare with terrestrial radiation. It refers to the reduction of the radar beam power due to the reflection or absorption of energy when it strikes a target. The greatest attenuation occurs when the radar beam goes through very heavy rain.

A meteorological report prepared by an automated surface weather observing system for transmission with certified observers signed on to the system to add information to the report. A faint visual phenomenon associated with geomagnetic activity, which occurs mainly in the high-latitude night sky; typical auroras are to km above the ground. Same as Aurora Borealis, but in the Southern Hemisphere. Also known as the southern lights; the luminous, radiant emission from the upper atmosphere over middle and high latitudes, and centred around the earths magnetic poles.

These silent fireworks are often seen on clear winter nights in a variety of shapes and colors. Also known as the northern lights; the luminous, radiant emission from the upper atmosphere over middle and high latitudes, and centred around the earth's magnetic poles. In solar-terrestrial terms, an oval band around each geomagnetic pole which is the locus of structured aurorae. Completed in the mids, the ASOS systems serve as the nations primary surface weather observing network.

ASOS is designed to support weather forecast activities and aviation operations and, at the same time, support the needs of the meteorological, hydrological, and climatological research communities. The season of the year that is the transition period from summer to winter, occurring as the sun approaches the winter solstice.

The equinox at which the sun approaches the Southern Hemisphere, marking the start of astronomical autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. The time of this occurrence is approximately September On that day, daylight is everywhere 12 hours. Compare with vernal equinox, offset by six months. In practice, it usually refers to the snow avalanche. In the United States, the term snow slide is commonly used to mean a snow avalanche.

A preliminary notification that conditions may be favorable for the development of avalanches in mountain regions. The direction or bearing toward which a sloping surface faces e. Alternate term for Bermuda High - a semi-permanent, subtropical area of high pressure in the North Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of North America that migrates east and west with varying central pressure.

Depending on the season, it has different names. When it is displaced westward, during the Northern Hemispheric summer and fall, the center is located in the western North Atlantic, near Bermuda. In the winter and early spring, it is primarily centered near the Azores in the eastern part of the North Atlantic. Also known as Azores High. A filter whose frequencies are between given upper and lower cutoff values, while substantially attenuating all frequencies outside these values this band.

Bay Area Public Service Unit. Those digital fields of reflectivity, mean radial velocity, and spectrum width data in spherical coordinates provided at the finest resolution available from the radar. Those products that present some representation of the base data. This representation may not necessarily be either in full resolution or depict the full area of coverage.

Base products can be used to generate a graphic display or further processing. The measure of variation of hydrometeor density throughout the radar sampling volume. If there is no variation in density, the beam is considered to be filled. Angular width of antenna pattern. Usually that width where the power density is one-half that of the axis beam.

Half-Power or 3 dB point. A software tool used by forecasters to examine the vertical profile and other aspects of the atmosphere. A cold front moving south or southwest along the Atlantic seaboard and Great Lakes; these are especially common during the spring months. A thunderstorm in which new development takes place on the upwind side usually the west or southwest side , such that the storm seems to remain stationary or propagate in. A back-sheared anvil often implies a very strong updraft and a high severe weather potential.

A fire started to stop an advancing fire by creating a burned area in its path. In hydrologic terms, the backing up of water through a conduit or channel in the direction opposite to normal flow. BCKG - A counterclockwise shift in wind direction for example, south winds shifting to the east.

Winds which shift in a counterclockwise direction with time at a given location e. The opposite of veering winds. In storm spotting, a backing wind usually refers to the turning of a south or southwest surface wind with time to a more east or southeasterly direction.

Backing of the surface wind can increase the potential for tornado development by increasing the directional shear at low levels. In hydrologic terms, a rod reading taken on a point of known elevation, a benchmark or a turning point.

Backsights are added to the known elevation to arrive at the height of the instrument. With a known height of the instrument, the telescope can be used to determine the elevation of other points in the vicinity.

In hydrologic terms, the longitudinal profile of the surface of a liquid in a non-uniform flow in an open channel, when the water surface is not parallel to the invert owing to the depth of water having been increased by the interposition of an obstruction such as a dam or weir. The term is sometimes used in a generic sense to denote all water surface profiles; or for profiles where the water is flowing at depths greater than the critical.

In hydrologic terms, the effect which a dam or other obstruction has in raising the surface of the water upstream from it.

The frequency range between the lowest and highest frequencies that are passed through a component, circuit, or system with acceptable attenuation. In hydrologic terms, the margins of a channel. Banks are called right or left as viewed facing in the direction of the flow. In hydrologic terms, water absorbed and stored in the void in the soil cover in the bed and banks of a stream, lake, or reservoir, and returned in whole or in part as the level of water body surface falls. The water level, or stage, at which a stream, river or lake is at the top of its banks and any further rise would result in water moving into the flood plain.

An established gage height at a given location along a river or stream, above which a rise in water surface will cause the river or stream to overflow the lowest natural stream bank somewhere in the corresponding reach.

The term "lowest bank" is however, not intended to apply to an unusually low place or a break in the natural bank through which the water inundates a small area. Bankfull stage is not necessarily the same as flood stage. A cloud plume often observed to extend downwind behind isolated mountain peaks, even on otherwise cloud-free days. An obstacle formed at the shallow entrance to the mouth of a river or bay.

A region in which a temperature gradient exists on a constant pressure surface. Baroclinic zones are favored areas for strengthening and weakening systems; barotropic systems, on the other hand, do not exhibit significant changes in intensity. Also, wind shear is characteristic of a baroclinic zone. A cloud pattern on satellite images - frequently noted in advance of formation of a low pressure center. A measure of the state of stratification in a fluid in which surfaces of constant pressure isobaric intersect surfaces of constant density isosteric.

A weather system in which temperature and pressure surfaces are coincident, i. Barotropic systems are characterized by a lack of wind shear, and thus are generally unfavorable areas for severe thunderstorm development. Usually, in operational meteorology, references to barotropic systems refer to equivalent barotropic systems - systems in which temperature gradients exist, but are parallel to height gradients on a constant pressure surface.

In such systems, height contours and isotherms are parallel everywhere, and winds do not change direction with height. As a rule, a true equivalent barotropic system can never be achieved in the real atmosphere.

While some systems such as closed lows or cutoff lows may reach a state that is close to equivalent barotropic, the term barotropic system usually is used in a relative sense to describe systems that are really only close to being equivalent barotropic, i.

The state of a fluid in which surfaces of constant density or temperature are coincident with surfaces of constant pressure; it is the state of zero baroclinity. In hydrologic terms, any artificial obstruction placed in water to increase water level or divert it. Usually the idea is to control peak flow for later release. A jet-like wind current that forms when a stably-stratified low-level airflow approaches a mountain barrier and turns to the left to blow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the barrier.

The serial number assigned to day rotation periods of solar and geophysical parameters. Rotation 1 in this sequence was assigned arbitrarily by Bartel to begin in January In hydrologic terms, the national standard for floodplain management is the base, or one percent chance flood. This flood has at least one chance in of occurring in any given year.

It is also called a year flood. Base Reflectivity is the default image. In hydrologic terms, a computer which accepts radio signals from ALERT gaging sites, decodes the data, places the data in a database, and makes the data available to other users. In hydrologic terms, streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel. This is also referred to as ground water flow, or dry-weather flow. An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff.

Also called a "Drainage Basin. The topographic dividing line around the perimeter of a basin, beyond which overland flow i. In hydrologic terms, the time it takes from the centroid of rainfall for the hydrograph to peak. In hydrologic terms, rainfall that adds to the residual moisture of the basin in order to help recharge the water deficit.

The science of measuring depths of the oceans, lakes, seas, etc. The movement of beach materials by some combination of high waves, currents and tides, or wind. The term reflects the danger involved in observing such an area visually, which must be done at close range in low visibility. The Beaufort wind scale is a system used to estimate and report wind speeds when no measuring apparatus is available.

It was invented in the early 19th Century by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort of the British Navy as a way to interpret winds from conditions at sea. Since that time, the scale has been modernized for effects on land. Beaufort Force 0 - Wind less than 1 kt, Calm, Sea surface smooth and mirror-like.

Smoke drift indicates wind direction, still wind vanes. Wind felt on face, leaves rustle, vanes begin to move. Beaufort Force 3 - Wind kt, Gentle Breeze, Large wavelets, crests begin to break, scattered whitecaps. Leaves and small twigs constantly moving, light flags extended.

Dust, leaves, and loose paper lifted, small tree branches move. Beaufort Force 5 - Winds kt, Fresh Breeze, Moderate waves 4 -8 ft taking longer form, many whitecaps, some spray.

Small trees in leaf begin to sway. Beaufort Force 6 - Winds kt, Strong Breeze, Larger waves 8 ft, whitecaps common, more spray. Larger tree branches moving, whistling in wires. Beaufort Force 7 - Winds kt, Near Gale, Sea heaps up, waves 13 ft, white foam streaks off breakers. Whole trees moving, resistance felt walking against wind. Beaufort Force 8 - Winds kt Gale, Moderately high 13 ft waves of greater length, edges of crests begin to break into spindrift, foam blown in streaks.

Whole trees in motion, resistance felt walking against wind. Beaufort Force 9 - Winds kt, Strong Gale, High waves 20 ft , sea begins to roll, dense streaks of foam, spray may reduce visibility. Slight structural damage occurs, slate blows off roofs.

Beaufort Force 10 - Winds kt, Storm, Very high waves 20 ft with overhanging crests, sea white densely blown foam, heavy rolling, lowered visibility. Seldom experienced on land, trees broken or uprooted, "considerable structural damage".

Beaufort Force 11 - Winds kt, Violent Storm, Exceptionally high 30 ft waves, foam patches cover sea, visibility more reduced. It is attached to a supercells general updraft and is oriented roughly parallel to the pseudo-warm front, i.

As with any inflow band, cloud elements move toward the updraft, i. Its size and shape change as the strength of the inflow changes. See also inflow stinger. In hydrologic terms, sand, silt, gravel, or soil and rock detritus carried by a stream on or immediately above its bed. The particles of this material have a density or grain size such as to preclude movement far above or for a long distance out of contact with the stream bed under natural conditions of flow.

In hydrologic terms, date on which ice forming a stable winter ice cover is first observed on the water surface. In hydrologic terms, date of definite breaking, movement, or melting of ice cover or significant rise of water level.

BM - In hydrologic terms, a permanent point whose known elevation is tied to a national network. These points are created to serve as a point of reference. Benchmarks have generally been established by the USGS, but may have been established by other Federal or local agencies. Benchmarks can be found on USGS maps. The process by which ice crystals in a cloud grow at the expense of supercooled liquid water droplets.

A piece of ice which has broken away from an iceberg, extending meters above the sea surface and square meters in area. Can also be the remains of a melting iceberg. A semi-permanent, subtropical area of high pressure in the North Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of North America that migrates east and west with varying central pressure. A subjectively-smoothed representation of a tropical cyclones location and intensity over its lifetime.

The best track contains the cyclones latitude, longitude, maximum sustained surface winds, and minimum sea-level pressure at 6-hourly intervals. Best track positions and intensities, which are based on a post-storm assessment of all available data, may differ from values contained in storm advisories. They also generally will not reflect the erratic motion implied by connecting individual center fix positions. Slang reference to patchy ice on roadways or other transportation surfaces that cannot easily be seen.

In hydrologic terms, transparent ice formed in rivers and lakes. A hypothetical "body" that absorbs all of the electromagnetic radiation striking it - it does not reflect or transmit any of the incident radiation.

A blackbody not only absorbs all wavelengths, but emits at all wavelengths with the maximum possible intensity for any given temperature.

Blackbody RadiationThe electromagnetic radiation emitted by an ideal blackbody adhering to the radiation laws; it is the theoretical maximum amount of electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths that can be emitted by a body at a given temperature.

BLZD - A blizzard means that the following conditions are expected to prevail for a period of 3 hours or longer: These conditions are expected to prevail for a minimum of 3 hours. Flow approaching a mountain barrier that is too weak or too stable to be carried over the barrier.

A descriptor used to amplify observed weather phenomena whenever the phenomena are raised to a height of 6 feet or more above the ground. Strong winds over dry ground, that has little or no vegetation, can lift particles of dust or sand into the air.

These airborne particles can reduce visibility, cause respiratory problems, and have an abrasive affect on machinery. Blowing snow is wind-driven snow that reduces surface visibility.

Blowing snow can be falling snow or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds. Blowing snow is usually accompanied by drifting snow. Issued when wind driven snow reduces surface visibility, possibly, hampering traveling. Blowing snow may be falling snow, or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds. A regional downslope wind whose source is so cold that it is experienced as a cold wind, despite compression warming as it descends the lee slope of a mountain range.

In hydrologic terms, an ice sheet in the form of a long border attached to the bank or shore. In general, a layer of air adjacent to a bounding surface. Specifically, the term most often refers to the planetary boundary layer, which is the layer within which the effects of friction are significant. The effects of friction die out gradually with increasing height, so the "top" of this layer cannot be defined exactly.

There is a thin layer immediately above the earths surface known as the surface boundary layer or simply the surface layer. This layer is only a portion of the planetary boundary layer, and represents the layer within which friction effects are more or less constant throughout as opposed to decreasing with height, as they do above it. The surface boundary layer is roughly 10 meters thick from the surface up to 10 m above the ground , but again the exact depth is indeterminate.

Like friction, the effects of insolation and radiational cooling are strongest within this layer. Also known as a vault.

Radar signature within a thunderstorm characterized by a local minimum in radar reflectivity at low levels which extends upward into, and is surrounded by, higher reflectivities aloft. This feature is associated with a strong updraft and is almost always found in the inflow region of a thunderstorm.

It cannot be seen visually. A radar echo which is linear but bent outward in a bow shape. Damaging straight-line winds often occur near the "crest" or center of a bow echo. Areas of circulation also can develop at either end of a bow echo, which sometimes can lead to tornado formation - especially in the left usually northern end, where the circulation exhibits cyclonic rotation.

Bowen RatioFor any moist surface, the ratio of heat energy used for sensible heating conduction and convection to the heat energy used for latent heating evaporation of water or sublimation of snow. The Bowen ratio ranges from about 0. It is named for Ira S. Bowen , an American astrophysicist. A computer model used to calculate air pollution concentrations. A box model is based on the assumption that pollutants are emitted into a box through which they are immediately and uniformly dispersed.

The sides and bottom of the box are defined by the sidewalls and floor of the valley being studied. In hydrologic terms, characterized by successive division and rejoining of streamflow with accompanying islands. A braided stream is composed of anabranches. In hydrologic terms, accumulation of floating ice made up of fragments not more than 2 meters across; the wreckage of other forms of ice.

Waves that break, displaying white water. Depends on wave steepness and bottom bathymetry. In hydrologic terms, the time when a river whose surface has been frozen from bank to bank for a significant portion of its length begins to change to an open water flow condition.

Breakup is signaled by the breaking of the ice and often associated with ice jams and flooding. In hydrologic terms, date on which a body of water is first observed to be entirely clear of ice and remains clear thereafter. In hydrologic terms, an ice jam that occurs as a result of the accumulation of broken ice pieces.

In hydrologic terms, the period of disintegration of an ice cover. A distinct feature observed by a radar that denotes the freezing level of the atmosphere. The term originates from a horizontal band of enhanced reflectivity that can result when a radar antenna scans vertically through precipitation. The freezing level in a cloud contains ice particles that are coated with liquid water.

These particles reflect significantly more radiation appearing to the radar as large raindrops than the portions of the cloud above and below the freezing layer. The bright band can affect the ability of the NEXRAD algorithms to produce accurate rainfall estimates at far ranges because the algorithm may interpret reflectivity from the bright band as an overestimate of precipitation reaching the surface.

In solar-terrestrial terms, a bright gaseous stream surge emanating from the chromosphere. In solar-terrestrial terms, a large gaseous stream surge that moves outward more than 0. A basic visual sensation describing the amount of light that appears to emanate from an object, or more precisely, the luminance of an object. A method of signaling in which multiple signals share the bandwidth of the transmission by the subdivision of the bandwidth into channels based on frequency.

An optical phenomenon sometimes occurring at high altitudes when the image of an observer placed between the sun and a cloud is projected on the cloud as a greatly magnified shadow. The shadows head is surrounded by rings of color, called a glory. A mesoscale area of high pressure, typically associated with cooler air from the rainy downdraft area of a thunderstorm or a complex of thunderstorms. A gust front or outflow boundary separates a bubble high from the surrounding air.

In hydrologic terms, a water stage recording device that is capable of attaching to a LARC for data automation purposes.

Generally, values in the range of around 50 to suggest environmental conditions favorable for supercell development. The tendency of a body to float or to rise when submerged in a fluid; the power of a fluid to exert an upward force on a body placed in it.

In solar-terrestrial terms, a transient enhancement of the solar radio emission, usually associated with an active region or flare. Slang for an inaccurate forecast, especially one where significant weather e.

Buttress dams are comprised of reinforced masonry or stonework built against concrete. They are usually in the form of flat decks or multiple arches.

They require about 60 percent less concrete than gravity dams, but the increased form work and reinforcement steel required usually offset the savings in concrete. Many were built in the s when the ratio of labor cost to materials was comparatively low. However, this type of construction is not competitive with other types of dams when labor costs are high. Dimensions have been reported to be generally between 10 and 20 cm, but sometimes even up to 1 m.

It moves slowly in the air or on the ground and usually disappears with a violent explosion. Convective Available Potential Energy. A measure of the amount of energy available for convection. CAPE is directly related to the maximum potential vertical speed within an updraft; thus, higher values indicate greater potential for severe weather.

However, as with other indices or indicators, there are no threshold values above which severe weather becomes imminent. CAPE is represented on an upper air sounding by the area enclosed between the environmental temperature profile and the path of a rising air parcel, over the layer within which the latter is warmer than the former. This area often is called positive area. In hydrologic terms, Cubic Feet per Second - the flow rate or discharge equal to one cubic foot of water, usually per second.

This rate is equivalent to approximately 7. This is also referred to as a second-foot. A measure of the amount of energy needed in order to initiate convection.

Values of CIN typically reflect the strength of the cap. They are obtained on a sounding by computing the area enclosed between the environmental temperature profile and the path of a rising air parcel, over the layer within which the latter is cooler than the former.

This area sometimes is called negative area. Coronal Rain - In solar-terrestrial terms, material condensing in the corona and appearing to rain down into the chromosphere as observed at the solar limb above strong sunspots.

Cumulus clouds - Detached clouds, generally dense and with sharp outlines, showing vertical development in the form of domes, mounds, or towers. Tops normally are rounded while bases are more horizontal. See Cb, towering cumulus. In hydrologic terms, the process of using historical data to estimate parameters in a hydrologic forecast technique such as SACSMA, routings, and unit hydrographs. A foehn wind that is channeled through a canyon as it descends the lee side of a mountain barrier.

Air parcels rising into this layer become cooler than the surrounding air, which inhibits their ability to rise further and produce thunderstorms. As such, the cap often prevents or delays thunderstorm development even in the presence of extreme instability.

However, if the cap is removed or weakened, then explosive thunderstorm development can occur. The cap is an important ingredient in most severe thunderstorm episodes, as it serves to separate warm, moist air below and cooler, drier air above. Or, air above it can cool, which also increases potential instability.

A stationary cloud directly above an isolated mountain peak, with cloud base below the elevation of the peak. In hydrologic terms, 1. The degree to which a material or object containing minute openings or passages, when immersed in a liquid, will draw the surface of the liquid above the hydrostatic level. Unless otherwise defined, the liquid is generally assumed to be water. The phenomenon by which water is held in interstices above the normal hydrostatic level, due to attraction between water molecules.

In hydrologic terms, the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. This layer ranges in depth from a couple of inches, to a few feet, and it depends on the pore sizes of the materials. The capillary fringe is also called the capillary zone. Waves caused by the initial wind stress on the water surface causes what are known as capillary waves.

These have a wavelength of less than 1. Capillary waves are important in starting the process of energy transfer from the air to the water. Used interchangably with Capillary Fringe; the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. A region of negative buoyancy below an existing level of free convection LFC where energy must be supplied to the parcel to maintain its ascent.

This tends to inhibit the development of convection until some physical mechanism can lift a parcel to its LFC. The intensity of the cap is measured by its convective inhibition. The term capping inversion is sometimes used, but an inversion is not necessary for the conditions producing convective inhibition to exist. Alternate term for Cap; a layer of relatively warm air aloft, usually several thousand feet above the ground, which suppresses or delays the development of thunderstorms.

CO2; a colorless and odorless gas which is the fourth most abundant constituent of dry air. A Catalina Eddy coastal eddy forms when upper level large-scale flow off Point Conception interacts with the complex topography of the Southern California coastline. As a result, a counter clockwise circulating low pressure area forms with its center in the vicinity of Catalina Island. This formation is accompanied by a southerly shift in coastal winds, a rapid increase in the depth of the marine layer, and a thickening of the coastal stratus.

Predominately these eddies occur between April and September with a peak in June. A typical Catalina eddy will allow coastal low clouds and fog to persist into the afternoon. A strong Catalina eddy may extend to feet and these clouds will move through the inland valleys and reach as far as Palmdale.

In hydrologic terms, an area having a common outlet for its surface runoff also see Drainage Area or Basin, Watershed. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for a 80, 90, or percent chance of measurable precipitation 0. See Precipitation Probability PoP. Alert stage or caution stage are used instead of caution stage in some parts of the country.

CIG - The height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer. A device using a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud base.

An optical ceilometer uses triangulation to determine the height of a spot of light projected onto the base of the cloud; a laser ceilometer determines the height by measuring the time required for a pulse of light to be scattered back from the cloud base. A typical thunderstorm consists of several cells. The term "cell" also is used to describe the radar echo returned by an individual shower or thunderstorm. Such usage, although common, is technically incorrect.

The standard scale used to measure temperature in most areas outside the United States. Generally speaking, the vertical axis of a tropical cyclone, usually defined by the location of minimum wind or minimum pressure. The cyclone center position can vary with altitude. In advisory products, refers to the center position at the surface. In solar-terrestrial terms, the passage of an Active Region or other feature across the longitude meridian that passes through the apparent center of the solar disk.

The average flow in cubic feet per second for any time period is the volume of flow in cfs-days. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for 30, 40, or 50 percent chance of measurable precipitation 0. When the precipitation is convective in nature, the term scattered is used.

In hydrologic terms, also known as Watercourse; an open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically, or continuously contains moving water, or forms a connecting link between two bodies of water.

River, creek, run, branch, anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels. Natural channels may be single or braided. Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to describe artificial channels. In hydrologic terms, water, which at any instant, is flowing into the channel system form surface flow, subsurface flow, base flow, and rainfall that has directly fallen onto the channel.

In hydrologic terms, an elongated opening in the ice cover caused by a water current. In hydrologic terms, the process of determining progressively timing and shape of the flood wave at successive points along a river.

In mountainous areas or in cities with tall buildings, air may be channeled through constricted passages producing high winds. Santa Ana winds and winds through passes from the cold Alaskan interior to the sea are examples of these winds. Channeled high winds are local in nature but can be extremely strong. These winds generally occur in well-defined areas. In hydrologic terms, the modification of a natural river channel; may include deepening, widening, or straightening.

A computer model used in air pollution investigations that simulates chemical and photochemical reactions of the pollutants during their transport and diffusion. This is a region-specific term used for Foehn Winds in the lee of the Rocky Mountains in the United States; Foehn Winds are warm, dry winds that occur in the lee of high mountain ranges. It is a fairly common wintertime phenomena in the mountainous west and in parts of Alaska. These winds develop in well-defined areas and can be quite strong.

A foehn cloud formation appearing as a bank of altostratus clouds east of the Rocky Mountains, heralding the approach of a chinook. It forms in the rising portion of standing waves on the lee side of the mountains. An observer underneath or east of the cloud sees an arch of clear air between the clouds leading edge and the mountains below. The cloud appears to converge with the mountains to the north and south due to a perspective effect.

CFCs - Manufactured substances used as coolants and computer-chip cleaners. When these products break down they destroy stratospheric ozone, creating the Antarctic Ozone Hole in the Southern Hemisphere spring Northern Hemisphere autumn. While no longer in use, their long lifetime will lead to a very slow removal from the atmosphere. In solar-terrestrial terms, the layer of the solar atmosphere above the photosphere and beneath the transition region and the corona.

In solar-terrestrial terms, flares that are just Chromospheric Events without Centimetric Bursts or Ionospheric Effects. SID Class C flare. The flow, or movement, of a fluid e. A cirriform cloud characterized by thin, white patches, each of which is composed of very small granules or ripples. These clouds are of high altitude 20,, ft or , m. A cloud of a class characterized by a composition of ice crystals and often by the production of halo phenomena and appearing as a whitish and usually somewhat fibrous veil, often covering the whole sky and sometimes so thin as to be hardly discernible.

CI High-level clouds 16, feet or higher , composed of ice crystals and appearing in the form of white, delicate filaments or white or mostly white patches or narrow bands. Cirrus clouds typically have a fibrous or hairlike appearance, and often are semi-transparent. Thunderstorm anvils are a form of cirrus cloud, but most cirrus clouds are not associated with thunderstorms. The time of morning at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon. At this time, there is enough light for objects to be distiguishable and that outdoor activities can commence.

The time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening. At this time objects are distinguishable but there is no longer enough light to perform any outdoor activities. CEM - A message issued by the National Weather Service in coordination with Federal, state or local government to warn the general public of a non-weather related time-critical emergency which threatens life or property, e. Geographic areas designated by the Clean Air Act where only a small amount or increment of air quality deterioration is permissible.

CAT - In aviation, sudden severe turbulence occurring in cloudless regions that causes violent buffeting of aircraft. A thin coating of ice on terrestrial objects, caused by rain that freezes on impact. The ice is relatively transparent, as opposed to rime ice, because of large drop size, rapid accretion of liquid water, or slow dissipation of latent heat of fusion.

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Mature streaming escort girl puy de dome A jet-like wind current that forms when a stably-stratified low-level airflow approaches a mountain barrier and turns to the left to blow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the barrier, mature streaming escort girl puy de dome. The season of the year that is the transition period from summer to winter, occurring as the sun approaches the winter solstice. Right and left abutments are those on respective sides of an observer looking downstream. So no excuses - indulge yourself, for porno petite bite escort trans nice hour or so, with a walk into the past, and keep an eye out for hidden treasures. The manor strikes one as taken out of a fairy tale: A cloud of a class characterized by globular masses or rolls in layers or patches, the individual elements being larger and darker than those of cirrocumulus and smaller than those of stratocumulus. This generally occurs when there are significant storms, such as tropical and extratropical cyclones.
Mature streaming escort girl puy de dome In producers joined to form a cooperative to preserve these vine-growing traditions. It is possible to come across some of the few inhabitants who still live here today, in their 19 th century houses. In hydrologic terms, the hypothetical flood used in the sizing of the dam and the associated structures to prevent dam failure by overtopping, especially for the spillway and outlet works. A typical thunderstorm consists of several cells. It is also known as a "dryline" or "dry front".

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As mountain farmers, the Walser are a minority who for centuries have represented the highest members of the Alpine population, geographically speaking, creating stable settlements at a minimum of 1, metres above sea-level. A small, rapidly rotating wind that is made visible by the dust, dirt or debris it picks up. What better way to end a day of sports or sightseeing in the mountains? Specifically, it represents the cumulative effect of atmospheric layers the are warmer than the parcel moving vertically along the adiabat. For locations on the left-hand side of a tropical cyclone's track looking in the direction of motiona sex porno escort clermont hit occurs when the cyclone passes to within a distance equal to the cyclone's radius of maximum wind. The distribution of rain drops or cloud droplets of specified sizes. Caretaker of the Riserva We are looking for the Caretaker of this Riserva. Secondly, their diet must be entirely natural and fresh and can by no means be made up from animal feed with additional vitamins or minerals. The state of a fluid in which surfaces of constant density or temperature are coincident with surfaces of constant pressure; it is the state of zero baroclinity. An Open-air Museum Chemp Village A local sculptor has populated the traditional village of Chemp with his artwork, brining magic and new life to the small mountain hamlet.

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From this moment on, Lady Challant is the indisputable protagonist of the entire festival. Here, metres above sea level, hidden treasures are kept. Pressure occuring at black nue escort eure of first contact termed Ice Impact Pressure. Best track positions and intensities, which are based on a post-storm assessment of all available data, may differ from values contained in storm advisories. Flooding which occurs when water is driven onto land from an adjacent body of water. This was a period of numerous alpine adventures for the Queen, who was the first woman to ever climb Mount Rosa. In solar-terrestrial terms, an oval band around each geomagnetic pole which is the locus of structured aurorae. mature streaming escort girl puy de dome

When we think of Italy and oil, olives are the first to spring to mind. This was probably the reason why the production of walnut oil began in the first place, as a substitute for olive oil, which once was considered expensive and hard to come by. The Arnad walnut oil is made from selected walnuts with a low acidity level, which are then dried and cold-pressed. The harvesting, threshing and processing of the walnuts are still conducted manually and old wooden presses are used.

This oil is particularly rich in vitamin E, which helps to combat cellular ageing, and contains a high concentration of alpha-linolenic acid; an omega-3 fatty acid, which improves the health of blood vessels, thereby decreasing the risk of heart disease. With the increase in health awareness, walnut oil has become an attractive alternative to other oils with a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, it contains no cholesterol! Just 1 0 kM into the Valle d' Aosta stands the town of Arnad.

In the Valle d'Aosta, lard has always been considered an important nutritional ingredient, and records show that the production of lard can be traced back to the year In time, the processing techniques have undergone some changes and have now reached a level of near-perfection, where the quality of this eclectic product is constantly scrutinized, so it can continue to delight the palates of those who taste it.

It goes very well with preparations made with polenta or game and finally, because of that special sweet flavour, it can be used even in desserts! In order to obtain this exquisite product, severe guidelines have to be set. First, and foremost, the pigs cannot weigh less than kg, they must be over 9 months of age and they must only come from the Valle d'Aosta, Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto or Emilia Romagna regions.

Secondly, their diet must be entirely natural and fresh and can by no means be made up from animal feed with additional vitamins or minerals. The layers of lard are then covered with water and crystallized salt. The lard is then left to season for at least 3 months, even if this period of rest can last up to months. During the last days of August, with music, entertainment and good food, the town of Arnad pays homage to this precious lard that has represented for centuries a fundamental ingredient in of Valle d'Aosta cuisine.

In these four days of festivities, you can taste local products, your kids can participate in workshops, and there will be plenty of opportunity to end the evening with a dance!

No visit to the Valle d'Aosta is complete without tasting the typical dairy products that most mountain areas have to offer. The Gressoney Valley boasts some notable cheeses, the most known of all being the Gressoney Toma, a savoury locally produced table cheese, also called Kesch in local Walser dialect. Produced directly on the mountain pastures of the Lys valley and also in the centre of the valley using traditional method, the tome are left to mature on wooden planks in cellars or caves for a period ranging from two to four months - ideally, the cheeses could be left to mature for 18 months but producers currently prefer to sell a less mature, smoother tasting version.

A characteristic trait of Gressoney Toma is that it is a half-fat cheese, prepared using semi-skimmed cow's milk. The skimming is achieved via surfacing, i. The remaining milk is used to prepare this delicious cheese with a compact paste and savoury flavour. Another typical cheese of the valley is Salignön, a mature ricotta cheese with a creamy fat texture and a spicy hot flavour , obtained from the left over whey from cheese-making.

To make Salignön, a cheese produced in various areas of the valley, the whey is enriched with milk or cream, mixed with salt, pepper and chilli pepper and is further seasoned with mountain herbs. In the past the short maturation process took place near the fireplace and the final product acquired a slightly smoked flavour. Salignön is a true delicacy but it is not easy to find: Other cheeses, not only typical of this area, can be found in the Gressoney Valley: What better way to end a day of sports or sightseeing in the mountains?

What are the odds of winning a world title in any sports discipline? And what are the odds of competing with your own brother for the same gold medal? The two brothers from Ayas have competed for the world title for just about 11 years, without leaving hope for other rivals, other than the third step on the podium.

The lives of Ivan and Simone are full of world records and victories. Simone is the older brother, born on November 8, and 8 times a world champion, with 3 world records to his name. Two hundred and fifty-two kilometres an hour… a whole lot more than what your average automobile can achieve. Ivan, the younger brother, was born on March 31, , and he is certainly no less of a champion! Since , on two occasions has he managed to steal the prized first cup from his brother, which he won in and in , while he came in second to Simone on 5 other occasions.

But the following year, they came back with a vengeance! Two great champions, two brothers jumping down snow-clad slopes with a common objective: A family affair, you could say.

A show-down going kilometres an hour on a pair of skis. The Monte Rosa massif is, indeed The massif counts ten peaks, nine of which higher than 4, metres in Italian territory, four on the frontier and five on the Italian slope. The 10 th , the Dufourspitze 4, metres , is the highest peak of the mass and counts the highest in Switzerland and second highest in the Alps, exceeded only by the Monte Bianco. It is from the Italian side that the Monte Rosa takes on the appearance of a single, united massif.

The reason for this is mainly that the area was inhabited by the Walser — a German speaking community — who initially were responsible for the German names. As for the etymology of the name Monte Rosa, it actually has very little to do with the colour pink, as some can be brought to, logically, think. The mountain does take on a slightly pinkish shade at sunset or sunrise, as most mountains do, but the name actually derives from an Aostian patois word — roëse — meaning glacier.

The first to succeed in climbing the Monte Rosa were 7 mountaineers from Gressoney: They reached a minor summit between Lyskamm and Ludwigshöhe, the Entdeckungsfels or Roccia della Scoperta. The year was The same year, Nicolas Vincent and Joseph Zumstein reached an impressive 4, metres, and that sub peak is now known as the Zumsteinspitze. In , mountain guides from Gressoney accompanied her Majesty Queen Margherita of Savoy to the inauguration of the highest mountain refuge in Europe — the Regina Margherita Hut.

Queen Margherita thus became the first woman to ascend the Monte Rosa — quite the accomplishment! Besides being a popular site for mountaineering, hiking and snowboarding, Monte Rosa hosts numerous ski resorts in the valleys of Gressoney, Champoluc and Alagna Valsesia Piedmont , with fabulous slopes and heli-skiing, and where you can practically ski until May. Each year in the town of Verrès 38 km from Aosta, 72 from Turin and from Milan , a historical re-enactment takes place to commemorate an unusual event, which occurred on the 31 st of May, Ok, this deserves some explanation!

From this moment on, Lady Challant is the indisputable protagonist of the entire festival. In the following days, Lady Caterina keeps to a tight schedule, touring and parading through town, while the townspeople enjoy a full festive program with masque balls, dances, music and parade floats. Margherita of Savoy , the first and the most beloved Queen of Italy, was profoundly attached to the town of Gressoney.

In fact, she contributed a great deal to the growing fascination of tourists for this small community at the foot of Monte Rosa. From the late s to the beginning of the , Gressoney became one of the most sought after holiday resorts among the nobility of the time. She was, in fact, a most beloved Queen, a woman of great charm, who knew how to bring the cultural and artistic elite of the time closer to the monarchy. There, Carducci found many an inspiration for his poetry, while Margherita found peace and quiet during her summer retreats.

She was, in fact, an enthusiastic climber; an interest she shared with her dear friend, Baron Luigi Beck Peccoz. The Baron hosted the Queen at his Gressoney residence for 5 years, from to This was a period of numerous alpine adventures for the Queen, who was the first woman to ever climb Mount Rosa.

In her honour stands the mountain shelter Capanna Regina Margherita — still the highest in Europe. He suffered a heart attack on the Grenz glacier, trying to cross from Gressoney to Zermatt. Since then the Queen never again set foot on Monte Rosa. The manor was completed in and really stands out in the midst of a conifer forest in the enchanting locality of Belvedere, where the view is spectacular, dominating the entire valley as far as the Lyskamm glacier.

Even though the Queen was determined not to climb anymore, she still wanted the grand panorama of the entrancing mountains to keep her company, which is probably why her apartments occupied the best position.

The manor strikes one as taken out of a fairy tale: The interior is refined and elegant, as was its mistress. In fact, her name is portrayed everywhere and one feels the reminiscence of her past presence. Here she stayed every summer until , a year prior to her death in Bordighera, on January 4 th , The interior of the castle hosts an impressive number of trophies: It stands in a splendid position at metres, surrounded by chestnut trees.

According to legend this is the exact spot where a wooden statue of the Holy Mary was found. The shepherds who discovered it placed the sculpture in the chapel of a nearby village but the next day the statue miraculously reappeared in the original place where it had been found, as if it had chosen to stand there. Another legend narrates that a cave close to the sanctuary was the hiding place where a witch and a devil with seven heads kept their prisoners.

Thanks to her faith in the Holy Mary, one of the captives, a girl captured close to the church, managed to calm down the other prisoners by encouraging them to pray to Our Lady of Machaby. To thank them for their prayers, the Madonna delle Nevi showed them a small opening, allowing them to escape. None of the above can be proven but we know for sure that the original building dates back to the fourteenth century and that the sanctuary was entirely rebuilt between and The rectangular simple structure of the church exterior is enriched by the more refined portico, added in The bell-tower dates back to while a separate building in the back has frescoes depicting the Mysteries of the Rosary.

The interior of the church is divided into three naves with round arches and stone columns. The ceilings have rib vaults and the walls are full of votive offerings brought by the people over the years.

Interesting 19th century frescoes by Alessandro, Arturo and Antonio Artari can be seen in the cupola. The altar, instead, dates back to the 17 th century and is built of black marble with a fine wood-carved tabernacle. Various other stone statues decorate the external square and the areas nearby.

The sanctuary is a place of extreme peace and tranquillity, worthy to experience. Visits are by appointment only by contacting the parish office, unless you visit on the 5 th August, the patron saint's day, when a pilgrimage takes place and the sanctuary is open.

All of different size and colours, these lakes are sure to leave you breathless with their pristine mountain waters and beautiful hues. To guide nature-lovers through the Reserve is the ancient mule track marked with a black 2 on a round yellow sign leading from Fontainemore to Oropa.

This track is also used for the famous religious procession that passes through the Colle della Balma di Oropa, and has been so for more than years! The Nature Reserve has been around since and covers an area of hectares.

Situated at an altitude of 1, -2, metres at the head of the Pacoulla stream valley, the park has a rich flora, boasting larch forests mixed with shrubbery such as rhododendron, blueberry and juniper.

Rare varieties of primrose also grow here, as well as mountain arnica, purple gentian, nigritella and - up on the steep, sunlit slopes — the mountain lily. As for wildlife, the Reserve hosts numerous species typical of the Alpine habitat, such as the marmot, the mountain hare and the chamois. The Mont Mars Nature Reserve is ideal for hiking, mountain biking, horseback riding and — in winter — snowshoe trekking. Egidio, Collegiate Church stands in the village of Verrès, along the right bank of a stream called Evançon.

Common belief dates the foundation of the monastery to the year , by commission of Gisella Italian feminine of Giles , the wife of the Marquis of Ivrea. However, the clergy house and its canons are first mentioned in a written document in Throughout its history periods of decadence alternated with periods of flourishment.

According to documents dating back to , the monastery followed the Rule of St. Augustine and was an important centre for the formation of the clergy. During the Lower Middle Ages, thanks to donations and privileges, the complex became the most important religious institution in the Valle d'Aosta.

The main brick building and the adjacent bell-tower, with two interesting statues of St. Giles, were erected in The religious complex was re-established in but was then confiscated by the state in Elements of the 15 th century building can be observed in the marvellous carved stone, three-mullioned window on one of the walls. The interior with its solemn central nave has columns and is richly decorated, while fragments of a 14 th century fresco can still be seen. The choir, with wooden stalls, has one of the first multi-coloured marble altars in the Valle d'Aosta which is itself well worth a visit.

In addition to these marvels, a rich library and one of the most important archives in the Valle d'Aosta can also be found at the complex. When touring the area in the s, famous English painter William Turner paid a visit to the village and made a drawing of the church and castle. Apart from being the local religious centre, today the church has an active choir and hosts classical and religious music concerts and contests. Not far from the imposing Fort of Bard is the enchanting district of Donnas.

Here, metres above sea level, hidden treasures are kept. A town of great strategic interest for the Romans, Donnas was a point of transit and commerce and served as a resting point on the much-travelled Gaul road. Today, the enchanting hamlet still showcases original 16 th century windows, frescoes, beautiful portals in walnut wood and the exquisite Palazzo Enrielli from the 17 th century.

If you have time, a stroll along the quiet streets of Donnas, dotted with small shops and traditional homes, is sure to take you back in time. However, just outside the town, Roman history is definitely not forgotten. This spectacular stretch of via della Gallie is more than 2, years old and shows exactly how the Romans defied the laws of nature, carving the passage out of live rock.

Considering it a feat that would be impressive even if done today, we can only stand in awe at how the construction of this important road was accomplished over 2, years ago. The large stretch of cobbled road measures metres long and around 5 metres wide and is a true marvel for all passers-by.

Now the symbol of the town, the road still displays its original carriage tracks and is characterised by a Roman arch, carved out of rock during the first century B. The archway is all that remains to remind us of the incredible amount of rock that was removed; the result of hard-working teams, which demonstrates just how sophisticated the road techniques were at the time, so much so that they have only been surpassed recently, with our modern tunnels and viaducts.

This extremely deep gorge has been carved out of the rocks over time by the River Lys, which here plummets into a spectacular waterfall. In fact, the Guillemore ravine combines incredible views with years of both natural and human history.

This specific spot was the only passageway of the Lys Valley for centuries, with the two mule tracks leading up the Lys Valley on its right and left slopes meeting right here, on the wonderful stone bridge overlooking the abysmal gorge. Upstream from the gorge you can see, even from the road below, rocks polished by the glacier.

Even a number of potholes are present; these are characteristic formations of erosion caused by the debris-laden subglacial torrent and its piercing movements. A small, perfectly circular pothole can be seen on the right drainage divide and is easily recognisable, because it is often filled with water.

Passing by the famous Moretta bridge, this road will take you directly to the mountain borgo and its church, situated on a flatter point of the path, just before it begins to steeply go uphill again.

Tradition wants this centuries-old church to date back to the year , even though the first written document mentioning the church of Perloz is a papal bull from The powerful Vallaise family, who dominated almost the entire valley, was profoundly attached to the church, making it their family burying grounds.

While you take in the surrounding landscapes, you will notice two Vallaise castles, one is known as the Ohtal and the other is named Charles, after a Captain of the Vallaise family, who was knighted by the Dukes of Savoy for having partaken in the liberation of the Fort Bard from the French in On entering the hamlet of Perloz, other buildings stand out as reminders of extraordinary past events that took place in this now remote village, but once the administrative and religious centre of the noble family Vallaise.

A historic wine press still bears the signs of a horrendous fire started by the Fascists on June the 30 th during a retaliation against the partisan fighters. Perloz is burning like an enormous brazier, these are the words of Don Pramotton, the village priest, who tells us the story of how the fire devoured many buildings in the village, including the Vallaise castle, of which there is nothing left but the perimeter fence.

If you're less into walking and more into making use of modern-day comforts, know that Perloz is also accessible through a regular car-accessible road. So no excuses - indulge yourself, for an hour or so, with a walk into the past, and keep an eye out for hidden treasures.

You will definitely find some! Immersed in nature all around the Mount Rosa , the Walser villages resist to this day. As mountain farmers, the Walser are a minority who for centuries have represented the highest members of the Alpine population, geographically speaking, creating stable settlements at a minimum of 1,, metres above sea-level. The Walser dialect - Titsch in Gressoney, Toitschu in Issime and Titzschu in Alagna and Rimella — is probably their most recognizable trait of this society and offers an excellent explanation of how isolated areas, each with their own culture, came about.

Economical and community issues are, inevitably, some of the main challenges these mountain folk had to face living in high altitudes.

Naturally, even the architecture had to adapt to the severe surroundings; Walser houses served multiple purposes to prevent the inhabitants from having to go outside in the freezing cold all the time.

Every Walser community has its own distinctive features; in the community of the Gressoney valley, for example, we find the Stadel-Haus; a building functioning as residence and as a stable for farm animals, a perfect union for those humid winters on the south side of the Mount Rosa.

The stadel stands on the banks of the River Lys, safe from avalanches and an ideal spot to settle small family villages. Here and there, next to the stadel, other homes and rustic villas have been built by merchants who made their fortune during the 18 th and 19 th centuries.

It is fascinating to see how the Walser community still defend their age-old traditions and characteristics to this day, but then, this is how they have always coped, by adapting to their surroundings. The hikers come from far and wide to complete a gruelling centuries-old pilgrimage to visit a statue housed in Oropa, which is said to have been carved by Saint Luke himself.

Pilgrims typically set off from the town of Fontainemore at 11 pm and reach the sanctuary some 11 hours later, following a challenging starlit trail, which sees them climb to over meters and cover a distance of some nine kilometers.

Once at Oropa, men women and children pilgrims all pay their respects to Saint Luke's mysterious, black wooden statue of the Madonna. The statue was found in Jerusalem in the 4th century AD and was carried to Italy shortly afterwards. It has been venerated ever since and is said to possess mysterious properties. Dust never gathers on the carving, and, despite of its age, it has not been worn away by touching of pilgrims nor eaten by wood-worms.

But the procession of Oropa, which has been undertaken since , is not just about ancient devotion to God or the church. The event sees members of the Lys Valley take time out from the day-to-day distractions of life and come together with their neighbours. With the stars as their guide, two nights a decade, they walk side by side, share stories, connect with nature and explore their spirituality.

If your idea of a castle consists of thick walls , high and solid towers, drawbridges and constricted dungeons, well then… you might be disappointed when you first cast your eyes on the Issogne Castle.

But once you cross the entrance threshold and go beyond the portico, you will immediately be taken back into a past long gone, where the first that strikes you is the emblematic wrought-iron pomegranate fountain — a work of art with strong symbolism alluding to the Challant family; the original owners.

Set in the middle of the courtyard, it is truly an iconographic masterpiece. More wonders await visitors on the inside, such as the much cared for Italian Garden; vibrant with flowerbeds and garden paths. The garden makes a perfect frame for the extraordinary Miroir des enfants de Challant Mirror of the children of the House of Challant , a lavish series of frescoed heraldic arms, highlighting the importance of the Challant nobility and their principal matrimonial alliances.

The arch provides resistance to movement. When combined with the weight of concrete arch-gravity dam , both the weight and shape of the structure provide great resistance to the pressure of water.

In solar-terrestrial terms, a bright, compact plage crossed by a system of small, arched filaments, which is often a sign of rapid or continued growth in an Active Region.

The region within the Arctic Circle, or, loosely, northern regions in general, characterized by very low temperatures. AO - The Arctic Oscillation is a pattern in which atmospheric pressure at polar and middle latitudes fluctuates between negative and positive phases. The negative phase brings higher-than-normal pressure over the polar region and lower-than-normal pressure at about 45 degrees north latitude.

The negative phase allows cold air to plunge into the Midwestern United States and western Europe, and storms bring rain to the Mediterranean. The positive phase brings the opposite conditions, steering ocean storms farther north and bringing wetter weather to Alaska, Scotland and Scandinavia and drier conditions to areas such as California, Spain and the Middle East.

In recent years research has shown, the Arctic Oscillation has been mostly in its positive phase. Steam fog, but often specifically applied to steam fog rising from small open water within sea ice. The boundary or front separating deep, cold arctic air from shallower, relatively less cold polar air. A low, horizontal cloud formation associated with the leading edge of thunderstorm outflow i.

Roll clouds and shelf clouds both are types of arcus clouds. This National Weather Service product is intended to provide a well-reasoned discussion of the meteorological thinking which went into the preparation of the Zone Forecast Product. The forecaster will try to focus on the most particular challenges of the forecast.

The text will be written in plain language or in proper contractions. At the end of the discussion, there will be a list of all advisories, non-convective watches, and non-convective warnings. The term non-convective refers to weather that is not caused by thunderstorms. An intermediate Area Forecast Discussion will be issued when either significant forecast updates are being made or if interesting weather is expected to occur.

An array of pollutant sources, so widely dispersed and uniform in strength that they can be treated in a dispersion model as an aggregate pollutant release from a defined area at a uniform rate. Compare line source and point source. AWHPS - A computer system which automatically ingests areal flash flood guidance values and WSRD products and displays this data and other hydrologic information on a map background.

In hydrologic terms, the area covered by the drawdown curves of a given pumping well or combination of wells at a particular time. In hydrologic terms, a graph showing the relation between the surface area of the water in a reservoir, the corresponding volume, and elevation. An adjunctive applied to regions where precipitation is so deficient in quantity, or occurs at such times, that agriculture is impracticable without irrigation. In hydrologic terms, a water-carved channel or gully in arid country, usually rather small with steep banks, dry most of the time, due to infrequent rainfall and the shallowness of the cut which does not penetrate below the level of permanent ground water.

In hydrologic terms, a well drilled into a confined aquifer with enough hydraulic pressure for the water to flow to the surface without pumping. Also called a flowing well. In hydrologic terms, a weir or other man-made structure which serves as the control for a stream-gaging station. An advisory issued for conditions associated with airborne ash plume resulting in ongoing deposition at the surface. Ashfall may originate directly from a volcanic eruption, or indirectly by wind suspending the ash.

The time at which the sun is 18 degrees below the horizon in the morning. Astronomical dawn is that point in time at which the sun starts lightening the sky. Prior to this time during the morning, the sky is completely dark. This is the time at which the sun is 18 degrees below the horizon in the evening.

At this time the sun no longer illuminates the sky. AU - The mean earth-sun distance, equal to 1. Same as Boundary Layer - in general, a layer of air adjacent to a bounding surface. Specifically,the term most often refers to the planetary boundary layer, which is the layer within which the effects of friction are significant.

For the earth, this layer is considered to be roughly the lowest one or two kilometers of the atmosphere. It is within this layer that temperatures are most strongly affected by daytime insolation and nighttime radiational cooling, and winds are affected by friction with the earths surface.

The effects of friction die out gradually with height, so the "top" of this layer cannot be defined exactly. A mathematical model for quantitatively describing, simulating, and analyzing the structure of the circulation in the atmosphere and the underlying causes. The pressure exerted by the earths atmosphere at any given point, determined by taking the product of the gravitational acceleration at the point and the mass of the unit area column of air above the point. Infrared radiation energy in the wavelength interval of 3- 80 micrometer emitted by or being propagated through the atmosphere.

It consists of both upwelling and downwelling components. Compare with terrestrial radiation. It refers to the reduction of the radar beam power due to the reflection or absorption of energy when it strikes a target.

The greatest attenuation occurs when the radar beam goes through very heavy rain. A meteorological report prepared by an automated surface weather observing system for transmission with certified observers signed on to the system to add information to the report.

A faint visual phenomenon associated with geomagnetic activity, which occurs mainly in the high-latitude night sky; typical auroras are to km above the ground.

Same as Aurora Borealis, but in the Southern Hemisphere. Also known as the southern lights; the luminous, radiant emission from the upper atmosphere over middle and high latitudes, and centred around the earths magnetic poles. These silent fireworks are often seen on clear winter nights in a variety of shapes and colors.

Also known as the northern lights; the luminous, radiant emission from the upper atmosphere over middle and high latitudes, and centred around the earth's magnetic poles. In solar-terrestrial terms, an oval band around each geomagnetic pole which is the locus of structured aurorae. Completed in the mids, the ASOS systems serve as the nations primary surface weather observing network.

ASOS is designed to support weather forecast activities and aviation operations and, at the same time, support the needs of the meteorological, hydrological, and climatological research communities. The season of the year that is the transition period from summer to winter, occurring as the sun approaches the winter solstice. The equinox at which the sun approaches the Southern Hemisphere, marking the start of astronomical autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.

The time of this occurrence is approximately September On that day, daylight is everywhere 12 hours. Compare with vernal equinox, offset by six months. In practice, it usually refers to the snow avalanche. In the United States, the term snow slide is commonly used to mean a snow avalanche.

A preliminary notification that conditions may be favorable for the development of avalanches in mountain regions. The direction or bearing toward which a sloping surface faces e. Alternate term for Bermuda High - a semi-permanent, subtropical area of high pressure in the North Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of North America that migrates east and west with varying central pressure.

Depending on the season, it has different names. When it is displaced westward, during the Northern Hemispheric summer and fall, the center is located in the western North Atlantic, near Bermuda.

In the winter and early spring, it is primarily centered near the Azores in the eastern part of the North Atlantic. Also known as Azores High. A filter whose frequencies are between given upper and lower cutoff values, while substantially attenuating all frequencies outside these values this band.

Bay Area Public Service Unit. Those digital fields of reflectivity, mean radial velocity, and spectrum width data in spherical coordinates provided at the finest resolution available from the radar.

Those products that present some representation of the base data. This representation may not necessarily be either in full resolution or depict the full area of coverage. Base products can be used to generate a graphic display or further processing. The measure of variation of hydrometeor density throughout the radar sampling volume. If there is no variation in density, the beam is considered to be filled. Angular width of antenna pattern. Usually that width where the power density is one-half that of the axis beam.

Half-Power or 3 dB point. A software tool used by forecasters to examine the vertical profile and other aspects of the atmosphere. A cold front moving south or southwest along the Atlantic seaboard and Great Lakes; these are especially common during the spring months. A thunderstorm in which new development takes place on the upwind side usually the west or southwest side , such that the storm seems to remain stationary or propagate in.

A back-sheared anvil often implies a very strong updraft and a high severe weather potential. A fire started to stop an advancing fire by creating a burned area in its path. In hydrologic terms, the backing up of water through a conduit or channel in the direction opposite to normal flow. BCKG - A counterclockwise shift in wind direction for example, south winds shifting to the east. Winds which shift in a counterclockwise direction with time at a given location e.

The opposite of veering winds. In storm spotting, a backing wind usually refers to the turning of a south or southwest surface wind with time to a more east or southeasterly direction.

Backing of the surface wind can increase the potential for tornado development by increasing the directional shear at low levels. In hydrologic terms, a rod reading taken on a point of known elevation, a benchmark or a turning point. Backsights are added to the known elevation to arrive at the height of the instrument.

With a known height of the instrument, the telescope can be used to determine the elevation of other points in the vicinity. In hydrologic terms, the longitudinal profile of the surface of a liquid in a non-uniform flow in an open channel, when the water surface is not parallel to the invert owing to the depth of water having been increased by the interposition of an obstruction such as a dam or weir.

The term is sometimes used in a generic sense to denote all water surface profiles; or for profiles where the water is flowing at depths greater than the critical. In hydrologic terms, the effect which a dam or other obstruction has in raising the surface of the water upstream from it.

The frequency range between the lowest and highest frequencies that are passed through a component, circuit, or system with acceptable attenuation.

In hydrologic terms, the margins of a channel. Banks are called right or left as viewed facing in the direction of the flow.

In hydrologic terms, water absorbed and stored in the void in the soil cover in the bed and banks of a stream, lake, or reservoir, and returned in whole or in part as the level of water body surface falls. The water level, or stage, at which a stream, river or lake is at the top of its banks and any further rise would result in water moving into the flood plain. An established gage height at a given location along a river or stream, above which a rise in water surface will cause the river or stream to overflow the lowest natural stream bank somewhere in the corresponding reach.

The term "lowest bank" is however, not intended to apply to an unusually low place or a break in the natural bank through which the water inundates a small area. Bankfull stage is not necessarily the same as flood stage.

A cloud plume often observed to extend downwind behind isolated mountain peaks, even on otherwise cloud-free days. An obstacle formed at the shallow entrance to the mouth of a river or bay. A region in which a temperature gradient exists on a constant pressure surface. Baroclinic zones are favored areas for strengthening and weakening systems; barotropic systems, on the other hand, do not exhibit significant changes in intensity.

Also, wind shear is characteristic of a baroclinic zone. A cloud pattern on satellite images - frequently noted in advance of formation of a low pressure center. A measure of the state of stratification in a fluid in which surfaces of constant pressure isobaric intersect surfaces of constant density isosteric. A weather system in which temperature and pressure surfaces are coincident, i. Barotropic systems are characterized by a lack of wind shear, and thus are generally unfavorable areas for severe thunderstorm development.

Usually, in operational meteorology, references to barotropic systems refer to equivalent barotropic systems - systems in which temperature gradients exist, but are parallel to height gradients on a constant pressure surface. In such systems, height contours and isotherms are parallel everywhere, and winds do not change direction with height.

As a rule, a true equivalent barotropic system can never be achieved in the real atmosphere. While some systems such as closed lows or cutoff lows may reach a state that is close to equivalent barotropic, the term barotropic system usually is used in a relative sense to describe systems that are really only close to being equivalent barotropic, i. The state of a fluid in which surfaces of constant density or temperature are coincident with surfaces of constant pressure; it is the state of zero baroclinity.

In hydrologic terms, any artificial obstruction placed in water to increase water level or divert it. Usually the idea is to control peak flow for later release. A jet-like wind current that forms when a stably-stratified low-level airflow approaches a mountain barrier and turns to the left to blow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the barrier. The serial number assigned to day rotation periods of solar and geophysical parameters.

Rotation 1 in this sequence was assigned arbitrarily by Bartel to begin in January In hydrologic terms, the national standard for floodplain management is the base, or one percent chance flood.

This flood has at least one chance in of occurring in any given year. It is also called a year flood. Base Reflectivity is the default image. In hydrologic terms, a computer which accepts radio signals from ALERT gaging sites, decodes the data, places the data in a database, and makes the data available to other users.

In hydrologic terms, streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel.

This is also referred to as ground water flow, or dry-weather flow. An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff. Also called a "Drainage Basin. The topographic dividing line around the perimeter of a basin, beyond which overland flow i. In hydrologic terms, the time it takes from the centroid of rainfall for the hydrograph to peak. In hydrologic terms, rainfall that adds to the residual moisture of the basin in order to help recharge the water deficit.

The science of measuring depths of the oceans, lakes, seas, etc. The movement of beach materials by some combination of high waves, currents and tides, or wind. The term reflects the danger involved in observing such an area visually, which must be done at close range in low visibility. The Beaufort wind scale is a system used to estimate and report wind speeds when no measuring apparatus is available. It was invented in the early 19th Century by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort of the British Navy as a way to interpret winds from conditions at sea.

Since that time, the scale has been modernized for effects on land. Beaufort Force 0 - Wind less than 1 kt, Calm, Sea surface smooth and mirror-like.

Smoke drift indicates wind direction, still wind vanes. Wind felt on face, leaves rustle, vanes begin to move. Beaufort Force 3 - Wind kt, Gentle Breeze, Large wavelets, crests begin to break, scattered whitecaps.

Leaves and small twigs constantly moving, light flags extended. Dust, leaves, and loose paper lifted, small tree branches move. Beaufort Force 5 - Winds kt, Fresh Breeze, Moderate waves 4 -8 ft taking longer form, many whitecaps, some spray. Small trees in leaf begin to sway. Beaufort Force 6 - Winds kt, Strong Breeze, Larger waves 8 ft, whitecaps common, more spray.

Larger tree branches moving, whistling in wires. Beaufort Force 7 - Winds kt, Near Gale, Sea heaps up, waves 13 ft, white foam streaks off breakers. Whole trees moving, resistance felt walking against wind. Beaufort Force 8 - Winds kt Gale, Moderately high 13 ft waves of greater length, edges of crests begin to break into spindrift, foam blown in streaks. Whole trees in motion, resistance felt walking against wind. Beaufort Force 9 - Winds kt, Strong Gale, High waves 20 ft , sea begins to roll, dense streaks of foam, spray may reduce visibility.

Slight structural damage occurs, slate blows off roofs. Beaufort Force 10 - Winds kt, Storm, Very high waves 20 ft with overhanging crests, sea white densely blown foam, heavy rolling, lowered visibility. Seldom experienced on land, trees broken or uprooted, "considerable structural damage". Beaufort Force 11 - Winds kt, Violent Storm, Exceptionally high 30 ft waves, foam patches cover sea, visibility more reduced.

It is attached to a supercells general updraft and is oriented roughly parallel to the pseudo-warm front, i. As with any inflow band, cloud elements move toward the updraft, i.

Its size and shape change as the strength of the inflow changes. See also inflow stinger. In hydrologic terms, sand, silt, gravel, or soil and rock detritus carried by a stream on or immediately above its bed. The particles of this material have a density or grain size such as to preclude movement far above or for a long distance out of contact with the stream bed under natural conditions of flow.

In hydrologic terms, date on which ice forming a stable winter ice cover is first observed on the water surface. In hydrologic terms, date of definite breaking, movement, or melting of ice cover or significant rise of water level. BM - In hydrologic terms, a permanent point whose known elevation is tied to a national network. These points are created to serve as a point of reference.

Benchmarks have generally been established by the USGS, but may have been established by other Federal or local agencies. Benchmarks can be found on USGS maps.

The process by which ice crystals in a cloud grow at the expense of supercooled liquid water droplets. A piece of ice which has broken away from an iceberg, extending meters above the sea surface and square meters in area. Can also be the remains of a melting iceberg. A semi-permanent, subtropical area of high pressure in the North Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of North America that migrates east and west with varying central pressure.

A subjectively-smoothed representation of a tropical cyclones location and intensity over its lifetime. The best track contains the cyclones latitude, longitude, maximum sustained surface winds, and minimum sea-level pressure at 6-hourly intervals. Best track positions and intensities, which are based on a post-storm assessment of all available data, may differ from values contained in storm advisories. They also generally will not reflect the erratic motion implied by connecting individual center fix positions.

Slang reference to patchy ice on roadways or other transportation surfaces that cannot easily be seen. In hydrologic terms, transparent ice formed in rivers and lakes. A hypothetical "body" that absorbs all of the electromagnetic radiation striking it - it does not reflect or transmit any of the incident radiation.

A blackbody not only absorbs all wavelengths, but emits at all wavelengths with the maximum possible intensity for any given temperature. Blackbody RadiationThe electromagnetic radiation emitted by an ideal blackbody adhering to the radiation laws; it is the theoretical maximum amount of electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths that can be emitted by a body at a given temperature.

BLZD - A blizzard means that the following conditions are expected to prevail for a period of 3 hours or longer: These conditions are expected to prevail for a minimum of 3 hours. Flow approaching a mountain barrier that is too weak or too stable to be carried over the barrier. A descriptor used to amplify observed weather phenomena whenever the phenomena are raised to a height of 6 feet or more above the ground.

Strong winds over dry ground, that has little or no vegetation, can lift particles of dust or sand into the air. These airborne particles can reduce visibility, cause respiratory problems, and have an abrasive affect on machinery. Blowing snow is wind-driven snow that reduces surface visibility. Blowing snow can be falling snow or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds. Blowing snow is usually accompanied by drifting snow.

Issued when wind driven snow reduces surface visibility, possibly, hampering traveling. Blowing snow may be falling snow, or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds. A regional downslope wind whose source is so cold that it is experienced as a cold wind, despite compression warming as it descends the lee slope of a mountain range. In hydrologic terms, an ice sheet in the form of a long border attached to the bank or shore.

In general, a layer of air adjacent to a bounding surface. Specifically, the term most often refers to the planetary boundary layer, which is the layer within which the effects of friction are significant. The effects of friction die out gradually with increasing height, so the "top" of this layer cannot be defined exactly.

There is a thin layer immediately above the earths surface known as the surface boundary layer or simply the surface layer. This layer is only a portion of the planetary boundary layer, and represents the layer within which friction effects are more or less constant throughout as opposed to decreasing with height, as they do above it.

The surface boundary layer is roughly 10 meters thick from the surface up to 10 m above the ground , but again the exact depth is indeterminate. Like friction, the effects of insolation and radiational cooling are strongest within this layer.

Also known as a vault. Radar signature within a thunderstorm characterized by a local minimum in radar reflectivity at low levels which extends upward into, and is surrounded by, higher reflectivities aloft. This feature is associated with a strong updraft and is almost always found in the inflow region of a thunderstorm. It cannot be seen visually. A radar echo which is linear but bent outward in a bow shape. Damaging straight-line winds often occur near the "crest" or center of a bow echo.

Areas of circulation also can develop at either end of a bow echo, which sometimes can lead to tornado formation - especially in the left usually northern end, where the circulation exhibits cyclonic rotation.

Bowen RatioFor any moist surface, the ratio of heat energy used for sensible heating conduction and convection to the heat energy used for latent heating evaporation of water or sublimation of snow.

The Bowen ratio ranges from about 0. It is named for Ira S. Bowen , an American astrophysicist. A computer model used to calculate air pollution concentrations. A box model is based on the assumption that pollutants are emitted into a box through which they are immediately and uniformly dispersed.

The sides and bottom of the box are defined by the sidewalls and floor of the valley being studied. In hydrologic terms, characterized by successive division and rejoining of streamflow with accompanying islands. A braided stream is composed of anabranches. In hydrologic terms, accumulation of floating ice made up of fragments not more than 2 meters across; the wreckage of other forms of ice. Waves that break, displaying white water.

Depends on wave steepness and bottom bathymetry. In hydrologic terms, the time when a river whose surface has been frozen from bank to bank for a significant portion of its length begins to change to an open water flow condition. Breakup is signaled by the breaking of the ice and often associated with ice jams and flooding. In hydrologic terms, date on which a body of water is first observed to be entirely clear of ice and remains clear thereafter.

In hydrologic terms, an ice jam that occurs as a result of the accumulation of broken ice pieces. In hydrologic terms, the period of disintegration of an ice cover. A distinct feature observed by a radar that denotes the freezing level of the atmosphere.

The term originates from a horizontal band of enhanced reflectivity that can result when a radar antenna scans vertically through precipitation. The freezing level in a cloud contains ice particles that are coated with liquid water. These particles reflect significantly more radiation appearing to the radar as large raindrops than the portions of the cloud above and below the freezing layer. The bright band can affect the ability of the NEXRAD algorithms to produce accurate rainfall estimates at far ranges because the algorithm may interpret reflectivity from the bright band as an overestimate of precipitation reaching the surface.

In solar-terrestrial terms, a bright gaseous stream surge emanating from the chromosphere. In solar-terrestrial terms, a large gaseous stream surge that moves outward more than 0. A basic visual sensation describing the amount of light that appears to emanate from an object, or more precisely, the luminance of an object. A method of signaling in which multiple signals share the bandwidth of the transmission by the subdivision of the bandwidth into channels based on frequency.

An optical phenomenon sometimes occurring at high altitudes when the image of an observer placed between the sun and a cloud is projected on the cloud as a greatly magnified shadow. The shadows head is surrounded by rings of color, called a glory. A mesoscale area of high pressure, typically associated with cooler air from the rainy downdraft area of a thunderstorm or a complex of thunderstorms. A gust front or outflow boundary separates a bubble high from the surrounding air. In hydrologic terms, a water stage recording device that is capable of attaching to a LARC for data automation purposes.

Generally, values in the range of around 50 to suggest environmental conditions favorable for supercell development. The tendency of a body to float or to rise when submerged in a fluid; the power of a fluid to exert an upward force on a body placed in it.

In solar-terrestrial terms, a transient enhancement of the solar radio emission, usually associated with an active region or flare. Slang for an inaccurate forecast, especially one where significant weather e.

Buttress dams are comprised of reinforced masonry or stonework built against concrete. They are usually in the form of flat decks or multiple arches.

They require about 60 percent less concrete than gravity dams, but the increased form work and reinforcement steel required usually offset the savings in concrete. Many were built in the s when the ratio of labor cost to materials was comparatively low. However, this type of construction is not competitive with other types of dams when labor costs are high.

Dimensions have been reported to be generally between 10 and 20 cm, but sometimes even up to 1 m. It moves slowly in the air or on the ground and usually disappears with a violent explosion. Convective Available Potential Energy. A measure of the amount of energy available for convection.

CAPE is directly related to the maximum potential vertical speed within an updraft; thus, higher values indicate greater potential for severe weather. However, as with other indices or indicators, there are no threshold values above which severe weather becomes imminent. CAPE is represented on an upper air sounding by the area enclosed between the environmental temperature profile and the path of a rising air parcel, over the layer within which the latter is warmer than the former.

This area often is called positive area. In hydrologic terms, Cubic Feet per Second - the flow rate or discharge equal to one cubic foot of water, usually per second. This rate is equivalent to approximately 7. This is also referred to as a second-foot. A measure of the amount of energy needed in order to initiate convection.

Values of CIN typically reflect the strength of the cap. They are obtained on a sounding by computing the area enclosed between the environmental temperature profile and the path of a rising air parcel, over the layer within which the latter is cooler than the former.

This area sometimes is called negative area. Coronal Rain - In solar-terrestrial terms, material condensing in the corona and appearing to rain down into the chromosphere as observed at the solar limb above strong sunspots.

Cumulus clouds - Detached clouds, generally dense and with sharp outlines, showing vertical development in the form of domes, mounds, or towers. Tops normally are rounded while bases are more horizontal. See Cb, towering cumulus. In hydrologic terms, the process of using historical data to estimate parameters in a hydrologic forecast technique such as SACSMA, routings, and unit hydrographs. A foehn wind that is channeled through a canyon as it descends the lee side of a mountain barrier.

Air parcels rising into this layer become cooler than the surrounding air, which inhibits their ability to rise further and produce thunderstorms. As such, the cap often prevents or delays thunderstorm development even in the presence of extreme instability. However, if the cap is removed or weakened, then explosive thunderstorm development can occur.

The cap is an important ingredient in most severe thunderstorm episodes, as it serves to separate warm, moist air below and cooler, drier air above. Or, air above it can cool, which also increases potential instability. A stationary cloud directly above an isolated mountain peak, with cloud base below the elevation of the peak. In hydrologic terms, 1. The degree to which a material or object containing minute openings or passages, when immersed in a liquid, will draw the surface of the liquid above the hydrostatic level.

Unless otherwise defined, the liquid is generally assumed to be water. The phenomenon by which water is held in interstices above the normal hydrostatic level, due to attraction between water molecules. In hydrologic terms, the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action.

This layer ranges in depth from a couple of inches, to a few feet, and it depends on the pore sizes of the materials. The capillary fringe is also called the capillary zone. Waves caused by the initial wind stress on the water surface causes what are known as capillary waves. These have a wavelength of less than 1. Capillary waves are important in starting the process of energy transfer from the air to the water. Used interchangably with Capillary Fringe; the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action.

A region of negative buoyancy below an existing level of free convection LFC where energy must be supplied to the parcel to maintain its ascent. This tends to inhibit the development of convection until some physical mechanism can lift a parcel to its LFC. The intensity of the cap is measured by its convective inhibition. The term capping inversion is sometimes used, but an inversion is not necessary for the conditions producing convective inhibition to exist.

Alternate term for Cap; a layer of relatively warm air aloft, usually several thousand feet above the ground, which suppresses or delays the development of thunderstorms. CO2; a colorless and odorless gas which is the fourth most abundant constituent of dry air. A Catalina Eddy coastal eddy forms when upper level large-scale flow off Point Conception interacts with the complex topography of the Southern California coastline.

As a result, a counter clockwise circulating low pressure area forms with its center in the vicinity of Catalina Island. This formation is accompanied by a southerly shift in coastal winds, a rapid increase in the depth of the marine layer, and a thickening of the coastal stratus.

Predominately these eddies occur between April and September with a peak in June. A typical Catalina eddy will allow coastal low clouds and fog to persist into the afternoon. A strong Catalina eddy may extend to feet and these clouds will move through the inland valleys and reach as far as Palmdale. In hydrologic terms, an area having a common outlet for its surface runoff also see Drainage Area or Basin, Watershed.

A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for a 80, 90, or percent chance of measurable precipitation 0. See Precipitation Probability PoP. Alert stage or caution stage are used instead of caution stage in some parts of the country. CIG - The height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer. A device using a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud base. An optical ceilometer uses triangulation to determine the height of a spot of light projected onto the base of the cloud; a laser ceilometer determines the height by measuring the time required for a pulse of light to be scattered back from the cloud base.

A typical thunderstorm consists of several cells. The term "cell" also is used to describe the radar echo returned by an individual shower or thunderstorm. Such usage, although common, is technically incorrect. The standard scale used to measure temperature in most areas outside the United States. Generally speaking, the vertical axis of a tropical cyclone, usually defined by the location of minimum wind or minimum pressure. The cyclone center position can vary with altitude.

In advisory products, refers to the center position at the surface. In solar-terrestrial terms, the passage of an Active Region or other feature across the longitude meridian that passes through the apparent center of the solar disk. The average flow in cubic feet per second for any time period is the volume of flow in cfs-days. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for 30, 40, or 50 percent chance of measurable precipitation 0. When the precipitation is convective in nature, the term scattered is used.

In hydrologic terms, also known as Watercourse; an open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically, or continuously contains moving water, or forms a connecting link between two bodies of water. River, creek, run, branch, anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels. Natural channels may be single or braided. Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to describe artificial channels.

In hydrologic terms, water, which at any instant, is flowing into the channel system form surface flow, subsurface flow, base flow, and rainfall that has directly fallen onto the channel. In hydrologic terms, an elongated opening in the ice cover caused by a water current. In hydrologic terms, the process of determining progressively timing and shape of the flood wave at successive points along a river.

In mountainous areas or in cities with tall buildings, air may be channeled through constricted passages producing high winds. Santa Ana winds and winds through passes from the cold Alaskan interior to the sea are examples of these winds. Channeled high winds are local in nature but can be extremely strong. These winds generally occur in well-defined areas. In hydrologic terms, the modification of a natural river channel; may include deepening, widening, or straightening.

A computer model used in air pollution investigations that simulates chemical and photochemical reactions of the pollutants during their transport and diffusion. This is a region-specific term used for Foehn Winds in the lee of the Rocky Mountains in the United States; Foehn Winds are warm, dry winds that occur in the lee of high mountain ranges. It is a fairly common wintertime phenomena in the mountainous west and in parts of Alaska.

These winds develop in well-defined areas and can be quite strong. A foehn cloud formation appearing as a bank of altostratus clouds east of the Rocky Mountains, heralding the approach of a chinook. It forms in the rising portion of standing waves on the lee side of the mountains. An observer underneath or east of the cloud sees an arch of clear air between the clouds leading edge and the mountains below.

The cloud appears to converge with the mountains to the north and south due to a perspective effect. CFCs - Manufactured substances used as coolants and computer-chip cleaners. When these products break down they destroy stratospheric ozone, creating the Antarctic Ozone Hole in the Southern Hemisphere spring Northern Hemisphere autumn. While no longer in use, their long lifetime will lead to a very slow removal from the atmosphere. In solar-terrestrial terms, the layer of the solar atmosphere above the photosphere and beneath the transition region and the corona.

In solar-terrestrial terms, flares that are just Chromospheric Events without Centimetric Bursts or Ionospheric Effects. SID Class C flare. The flow, or movement, of a fluid e. A cirriform cloud characterized by thin, white patches, each of which is composed of very small granules or ripples. These clouds are of high altitude 20,, ft or , m. A cloud of a class characterized by a composition of ice crystals and often by the production of halo phenomena and appearing as a whitish and usually somewhat fibrous veil, often covering the whole sky and sometimes so thin as to be hardly discernible.

CI High-level clouds 16, feet or higher , composed of ice crystals and appearing in the form of white, delicate filaments or white or mostly white patches or narrow bands. Cirrus clouds typically have a fibrous or hairlike appearance, and often are semi-transparent. Thunderstorm anvils are a form of cirrus cloud, but most cirrus clouds are not associated with thunderstorms. The time of morning at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon.

At this time, there is enough light for objects to be distiguishable and that outdoor activities can commence. The time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening. At this time objects are distinguishable but there is no longer enough light to perform any outdoor activities.

CEM - A message issued by the National Weather Service in coordination with Federal, state or local government to warn the general public of a non-weather related time-critical emergency which threatens life or property, e.

Geographic areas designated by the Clean Air Act where only a small amount or increment of air quality deterioration is permissible. CAT - In aviation, sudden severe turbulence occurring in cloudless regions that causes violent buffeting of aircraft.

A thin coating of ice on terrestrial objects, caused by rain that freezes on impact. The ice is relatively transparent, as opposed to rime ice, because of large drop size, rapid accretion of liquid water, or slow dissipation of latent heat of fusion. With respect to severe thunderstorms, a local region of clearing skies or reduced cloud cover, indicating an intrusion of drier air; often seen as a bright area with higher cloud bases on the west or southwest side of a wall cloud.

A clear slot is believed to be a visual indication of a rear flank downdraft. As used in connection with reimbursable National Weather Service NWS fire weather services, a public fire service or wildlands management agency, Federal or non-Federal, which requires and uses NWS fire and forestry meteorological services. The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years.

A non-random change in climate that is measured over several decades or longer. The change may be due to natural or human-induced causes. It is issued by the fifteenth of the month. Mathematical model for quantitatively describing, simulating, and analyzing the interactions between the atmosphere and underlying surface e. A climate outlook issued by the CPC gives probabilities that conditions, averaged over a specified period, will be below-normal, normal, or above-normal.

The Center serves the public by assessing and forecasting the impacts of short-term climate variability, emphasizing enhanced risks of weather-related extreme events, for use in mitigating losses and maximizing economic gains. The system consisting of the atmosphere gases , hydrosphere water , lithosphere solid rocky part of the Earth , and biosphere living that determine the Earths climate. An outlook based upon climatological statistics for a region, abbreviated as CL on seasonal outlook maps.

CL indicates that the climate outlook has an equal chance of being above normal, normal, or below normal. The science that deals with the phenomena of climates or climatic conditions. An instrument that measures angles of inclination; used to measure cloud ceiling heights. A basin draining to some depression or pond within its area, from which water is lost only by evaporation or percolation.

A basin without a surface outlet for precipitation falling precipitation. Flooding that occurs on lakes with either no outlet or a relatively small one.

Seasonal increases in rainfall cause the lake level to rise faster than it can drain. The water may stay at flood stage for weeks, months, or years. A low pressure area with a distinct center of cyclonic circulation which can be completely encircled by one or more isobars or height contour lines. The term usually is used to distinguish a low pressure area aloft from a low-pressure trough. Closed lows aloft typically are partially or completely detached from the main westerly current, and thus move relatively slowly see Cutoff Low.

CLD A visible aggregate of minute water droplets or ice particles in the atmosphere above the Earths surface. Same as Ceiling; the height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer. Small particles in the air on which water vapor condenses and forms cloud droplets. An array of clouds whose bases are at approximately the same level. Rows of cumulus or cumulus-type clouds aligned parallel to the low-level flow.

Cloud streets sometimes can be seen from the ground, but are seen best on satellite photographs. Radar echoes that interfere with observation of desired signals on the radar display. The process by which water droplets in a cloud collide and come together to form raindrops.

Flooding which occurs when water is driven onto land from an adjacent body of water. This generally occurs when there are significant storms, such as tropical and extratropical cyclones. Includes the area from a line approximating the mean high water along the mainland or island as far out as nautical miles including the bays, harbors and sounds.

The marine forecast for areas, including bays, harbors, and sounds, from a line approximating the mean high water mark average height of high water over a year period along the mainland or near shore islands extending out to as much as NM.

Minor flooding is possible i. Flooding that will pose a serious threat to life and property is occurring, imminent or highly likely. Flooding with significant impacts is possible. This flooding may impact the immediate oceanfront, gulfs, bays, back bays, sounds, and tidal portions of river mouths and inland tidal waterways.

Lakeshore flooding impacts the immediate lakefront, bays, and the interfaces of lakes and connecting waterways, such as rivers. A radar that utilizes both signal phase and amplitude to determine target characteristics. Downslope flow pulsations that occur at more or less regular intervals as cold air builds up on a peak or plateau, reaches a critical mass, and then cascades down the slopes. A shallow cold air mass which is carried up the slope of a mountain barrier, but with insufficient strength to surmount the barrier.

The cold air, trapped upwind of the barrier alters the effective terrain configuration of the barrier to larger-scale approaching flows. The phenomenon in which a low-level cold air mass is trapped topographically. Often, this cold air is entrenched on the east side of mountainous terrain.

Cold Air Damming often implies that the trapped cold air mass is influencing the dynamics of the overlying air mass, e. Effects on the weather may include cold temperatures, freezing precipitation, and extensive cloud cover. A funnel cloud or rarely a small, relatively weak tornado that can develop from a small shower or thunderstorm when the air aloft is unusually cold hence the name. They are much less violent than other types of tornadoes.

A zone separating two air masses, of which the cooler, denser mass is advancing and replacing the warmer. A frontal zone formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front and, being colder than the air ahead of the warm front, slides under the warm front, lifting it aloft.

Compare with warm occlusion. A region of relatively cold air, represented on a weather map analysis as a relative minimum in temperature surrounded by closed isotherms. Cold pools aloft represent regions of relatively low stability, while surface-based cold pools are regions of relatively stable air.

A generally circular ring of cloud that may be observed on rare occasions surrounding the upper part of a wall cloud. This term sometimes is used incorrectly as a synonym for wall cloud. The fraction of droplets approaching a surface that actually deposit on that surface.

A low pressure storm system that forms in winter in southeastern Colorado or northeastern New Mexico and tracks northeastward across the central plains of the U. In hydrologic terms, ice consisting of columnar shaped grain. The ordinary black ice is usually columnar-grained.

Generally referred to as SEAS. Used to describe the combination or interaction of wind waves and swells in which the separate components are not distinguished. This includes the case when swell is negligible or is not considered in describing sea state. When used, SEAS should be considered as being the same as the significant wave height.

A synoptic scale cloud pattern with a characteristic comma-like shape, often seen on satellite photographs associated with large and intense low-pressure systems. A thunderstorm radar echo which has a comma-like shape. It often appears during latter stages in the life cycle of a bow echo. Typically used to refer to mountainous terrain. In general usage, it may also refer to coastal regions and heterogeneous landscapes. An average that is calculated according to specific criteria.

For example, one might want a composite for the rainfall at a given location for all years where the temperature was much above average. A stream discharge hydrograph which includes base flow, or one which corresponds to a net rain storm of duration longer than one unit period. In solar-terrestrial terms, the indicative of solar flare importance. These are common in the most intense hurricanes. They usually mark the end the period of intensification. These hurricanes then maintain quasi-constant intensity or weaken.

When the inner eye is completely dissipated, more intensification may occur. In general, the physical process by which a vapor becomes a liquid or solid; the opposite of evaporation, although on the molecular scale, both processes are always occurring.

A funnel-shaped cloud associated with rotation and consisting of condensed water droplets as opposed to smoke, dust, debris, etc. An atmospheric condition that exists when the environmental lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate but greater than the moist adiabatic lapse rate.

Flow of heat in response to a temperature gradient within an object or between objects that are in physical contact. In hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate.

The volume of the cone will vary with the rate of withdrawal of water. Also called the Cone of Influence. Same as Cone of Depression; in hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate.

In hydrologic terms, ground water held under an aquiclude or an aquifuge, called artesian if the pressure is positive. A pattern of wind flow in which air flows inward toward an axis oriented parallel to the general direction of flow. It is the opposite of difluence. Confluence is not the same as convergence. Winds often accelerate as they enter a confluent zone, resulting in speed divergence which offsets the apparent converging effect of the confluent flow.

The act that assigned the responsibility of river and floor forecasting for the benefit of the general welfare of the Nation's people and economy to the Weather Bureau, and subsequently the National Weather Service.

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